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Lecture

CLA 310 L11.07

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Department
Classics
Course
CLA160H1
Professor
Susan Dunning
Semester
Fall

Description
CLA 310 – R ELIGIONROMAN W ORLD S. DUNNING 11/07/12 R ELIGION IN TREOMAN PROVINCES **ESSAY DUE NOV. 21 – HAND BY EMAIL AND HARD-COPY Provinces in the Roman Republic - Greece, Carthage, Spain, North Africa, Egypt – Mediterranean area - Rome had an empire before an emperor o Roman senate and people rule it - Greeks would think that the Roman people are their conquerors - How did Rome relate to its conquered people? o Relationship with conquered people – how did they assimilate / react to them? o Exploitation, taxation (controlled, collected by local elites) - Ideally pull legions out of the territory after the conquest – life goes back to ‘normal’ except for the territory’s promise of military service and/or taxation as a sign of allegiance to Rome - Established Roman governor – prime authority (ex-magistrate) of the province o Officials and soldiers accompany the governor - Ideally to establish good relations with the local elite to help with governance and taxation o Keep local civic structure but make sure they are obedient to Rome - Government and religion go hand-in-hand – governor the representative of Rome, in charge of making sure sacrifice or offering is made in behalf of Rome, the emperor, etc. o Relied on to make sure rites followed through by the locals, culture abided by as a sign of allegiance to Rome and empire Colonia (pl. coloniae) - Towns set up and founded for Roman citizens – colony o Town for soldiers and veterans, their families - Grant of citizenship to non-status town to make them coloniae - Set up to secure a conquered territory and in times of land crises, house poor people - Involved Roman citizens – culturally so o (Latin-speaking, traditional religious practices, know traditional law, rights) - Italy not wholly Roman before – held by different tribes that have different languages but pretty similar in some religious aspects - Charter given to coloniae – privileges, rules that are similar to Rome’s – pontifices, augures brought to the coloniae, headed by duumviri (mayors) o Rome’s civic, political and religious values imitated by the coloniae - Foundation of the coloniae mimic foundation of Rome – auguries, auspices taken before establishing the coloniae, walls built, furrow made to indicate sacred boundary (but not equitable to the Roman pomerium – just a formality, no symbolic value) Municipia (pl. municipiae) - People are non-citizens, have Latin rights o Watered-down version of citizenship rights - The local magistrate, at the end of his term, can become a citizen - Municipia can be granted the status of colonia later o Act as Roman as possible to become eligible for citizenship o “Play the game” to be promoted o E.g., Gaul became romanized before Dacia Towns without status - People live there, own governance and citizenship but not Romans – ruled by them though - No say in political matters, don’t have a way to appeal to Roman governor about mistreatment – voice can't be heard - Most Roman influence, traditional gods, rites seen in coloniae - Towns without status usually preserve their own native religion - Both Roman and non-Roman religious rites in municipiae - 212, Caracalla issued a decree that all inhabitants of the Roman empire be made into citizens o Before 212, when one is expelled from a community, they could become citizens of another o 212 and afterwards, expulsion from the community means losing citizenship, leaving the empire, and facing the death sentence if one came back Gaius, Institutes 2.5-7 - Property of gods in the provinces - Treat as if sacer /religiosus even though it isn’t o More important to not anger the gods – see no need to uproot native religious beliefs if they don’t have to be dealt with directly just yet P.250, 10.4c, di-iv Property in the provinces: What kind of authority does Pliny have? What is Pliny’s concern in each letter? Why does he consult Trajan? What is Trajan’s response? How does it relate to Gaius’ discussion of Roman property law? - Does not have technical/legal status as it would have been in Rome – not consecrated, spaces in provinces deemed sacer / religiosus – leave as such because no need to upset the local people - Moving of the Mater Magna temple, need not worry about the ritual - Trajan the pontifex maximus – so he would know what to do regarding religious matters o Currying favours from the emperor o Prevent displeasure of the gods o Covering his ass- being cautious - Pontius-Bithynia mismanaged before Pliny – who is a precise person, perfectionist – thus the perfect person to manage the province - No set rules for magistrates to bring to provinces - Not sure if applicable to the people and the emperor’s letter has the force of law (can act as precedent) - No religious offence because soil has no status like Rome’s (Gaius says that they should treat it as such even if it isn’t – opposite view) - Trajan doesn’t care – just do it - Move dead bodies – Trajan says go for it - Property of these people not really religiosus o Different from Gaius who says treat it as if it were religiosus Calendars - No native festivals but have the major ones - Made of stone - Festivals for soldiers, papyrus calendars (portable) - Certain vota be made to the emperor, Rome, etc. - Show the expectations of Roman soldiers - Different because stone for people bound to the land, papyrus for soldiers p.62 – calendar - 8-day week , shown by letter th o 9 day, market day - Kalends, Nones, Ides – special days - Based on the lunar system - Classification of days o F = fastus (courts can be in session) o C = comitialis ( public assemblies and courts can be in session) o N = nefastus (no assemblies and courts can be in session) o NP = ? nefastus publicus (uncertain; none in session, maybe major festivals) o EN = endotercisus (nefastus morning, fastus
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