Class Notes (809,390)
Canada (493,689)
Classics (1,680)
CLA160H1 (318)

CLA 310 L11.14

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Susan Dunning

CLA 310 – Roman Religion S. Dunning 11/14/12 **T HE LATEST EXTENSION FOR THERESEARCH ESSAY ISNOV. 28 TBUT PEOPLE CAN SUBMIT IT THE21ST Ancient Jewish Religion Q: (Some things to keep in mind) What are the main characteristics of ancient Jewish religious practices? How did the Jewish religion differ from the polytheistic religious practices in the Roman Empire? What was the relationship between Jews and the Roman Empire? Why would Judaism be perceived as superstitio? - The term “Jew” is problematic because it denotes one tribe when it is really comprised of 12. As well denotes all from Judea o Alternative: Judeans – still problematic though o This is because ancient scholars tend to tie the people to the land - For the purpose of this class, “Jew” or “Hebrew” used - The ancient Jewish religion not entirely uniform Key events in Jewish history nd - God’s covenant with Abraham (2 millennium BC?) - Exodus (1600-1300 BC?) - Founding of Israel, ruled by judges, then kings (1350-586 BC) - Divided kingdom – Israel to the north, Judah to the south - Assyrian conquest of Israel (721 BC), Babylonians conquer Assyria, then Judah (586 BC) - Persian conquest of Babylon (538 BC); Alex the Great conquers Persia, Seleucids rule Judaea - Pompey conquers Mithridates VI of Pontus (63 BC), Judaea under Roman rule (governed by kings loyal to Rome) - Jewish Revolt (66-73 BC), Kitos Revolt (115 – 7 AD), Bar Kokhba Revolt (132-5 AD) - Jews’ coming to power – sign of divine favour = Jewish god loves them (Roman thinking) - Jewish thinking = favoured but disciplined (i.e., God punishes them for bad acts) - Out of nothing, something comes to being (Abraham and conception of Isaac, from whom the Hebrews originated) - Absolute divine power vs. Human weakness o Recurrent theme in Jewish origin discourse - Judges – political, military and religious connotations - Ark of the Covenant – most important sacred obj. of the Jews - Kings enter into a covenant with God, loyal o But later devolved – lost sight of goal (worship God) - Great Temple of Solomon housed the ark - Split of kingdom after Solomon - People get redistributed - Many kings did bad regarding royal acts o Greedy, power-hungry - Intermarriages between the tribes, monotheistic worship - Local elite used for governance - Greek statues, Roman deities asked to be put inside Jewish religious places – clash o Will be subject people rather than compromise religion and so Romans assigned king  Sacrifices carried out, as well as quelling revolts – duties - Romans make effort to feminize them (?) Religious Performance in Judaism - Jewish religious space o Hierarchical space regarding gender, position, degree of participation (i.e., gentile/Jewish) o Segregated o Inner rooms exclusive to officials  Must be pure enough to go in o Concept of ritual purity o Holy of Holies – essence of God - Greek and Roman temples – temple and grounds considered sacer - Jewish considered theirs sanctus o God believed to be present within temple so considered sanctus - too much for human beings to bear (too holy) - Made beautiful to humans to be beautiful to God o Use the best material o Divinely ordained temple – built to order - Act of sacrifice and obedience to God o Holocaust sacrifice – meat leftover for use of priest - no sharing with common people o Part of the priest’s livelihood - Priests can get married – office restricted to Levites tribe - Altar inside the temple, sculptural panels featuring animals and palm trees – no anthromorphic images (as per the commandment that states they shall not worship idols – i.e., human images in art considered as idols) o God is a spirit – should not try to imagine him as anything else o To see him is to see too much (cf. Semele and Zeus) - Ark of the Covenant – made specifically according to God’s instructions (Bible) o 10 commandments preserved inside o With manna and Aaron’s staff - 10 commandments = ethical code of the Jews o Covenant with God - Manna represents divine providence, the staff, divine ordinance / power - Sacred texts o Torah o Codified during the Babylonian captivity o Dead Sea Scrolls (Hebrew) - Essential focus for worship in synagogues - Synagogues o Place for instruction o “coming together” in Greek o Instructs on what one is supposed to do in their daily lives, how to have a better relationship with God and others o Rabbi = teacher - Sacred texts = 66 books – official texts – particularly linked to divine will o Come from all over – from writes of different circumstances, languages, cultures, etc. - First 5 books – Pentateuch – about the origin of the world, of Jews (Hebrews), beginning of their Covenant, etc. - Books of Wisdom – Psalms, Proverbs, poetry - Major Prophets and Minor Prophets – people who communicate divine will in times of crises o Linked with kingship (influence king or criticize) o From elite / humble background o Social commentator of his time - Sacred texts – exquisitely made, great pains to preserve integrity Psalm 4: Invocation, Justification and Request? How is it weird? - YHWH – O LORD – translation of God’s name o Not to be said out loud (properly) – too holy - Invocation: o “Answer me when I call, O God of my right!” o “…for you alone, O Lord, make me lie down in safety” o Done with two different names - Justification: o “…of my right!” and “for you alone” – past and future references - Request: o “Be gracious to me, and hear my prayer” and “O, that we might see som
More Less

Related notes for CLA160H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.