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Denis Walsh

Classical Mythology Emily Jennings Where and When Myths Come From Art, oratory, texts.  What we see myth as o a system: always gains sense in its relativity of previous myths retelling of old ideas. Gains meaning from what came from before and what came after o always myth: every place had own stories. Greek mythology is national comes from all of Greece o How do myths cluster?:  good communication and shared culture  share myths and make sense to eachother  Get in the archaic age Neolithic Age 30000-2000 BC Early Bronze Age 2900-2000 BC Minoan -2000-1400BC Mycenaean Age 1600-1200 BC  High cultural achievement  Backdrop of a lot of myths (eg. Agamemnon from Mycenae)  Heroes transmitted from this era, changed and obscured over time into Archaic and Classical Age  Disrupted by destruction that lead to the Dark Ages Dark Age 1100-750  Fall of Mycenaean age beginning of writing again  Trojan wars (if real) around this time ending Mycenaean Age—Dorian invasion Archaic age 750-500 BC  Good communication and shared culture for myth cluster  Must be ways for myths to travel o Oral transmission of the myths: anybody can do this  the people who are important to study are poets and epic poets: their stuff eventually gets written down  homer: Iliad and Odyssey 750-700  beginning of the composition of myths o not true, no idea what came first  Cyclic poets: like homer, write epic poetry, not famous not much of their work survives, but people wrote ―reviews‖  Call cyclic poets because all myths associated with one place called cycle: every myth written about Troy is part of the Trojan cycle.  Poets who talk about Thebes: Oedipus comes from Thebes part of Thebian cycle  Hesiod: Theogony, Works and Days, Catalogue of Women  Catalogue of women: ―or like‖ o women getting raped, had sex with, bore children with etc the gods and who they begot o Poem that used mythic women to pull together mythology of Greece. Catalogue o Aristocratic families liked to link their families to mythological families or gods. Justifies control of space  Turns mythology into para-history: history that unfolds alongside REAL history  Theogony: creation of Gods o Aren’t really that important, small portion of myth Classical age 500-336BC Hellenistic Age 323- 145BC Roman Age 145 Myth exists in Art Greek world: vases and pottery, painting on buildings but paint does not survive to us.  Artistic representations in Mycenaean age don’t understand their language that well, because we don’t know what they really refer to  Geometric age of art o Pottery that focuses on geometric forms not telling stories of mythology. We don’t get anything  Representational pictures after geometric age o Mid 7 century BC o Identifiable, we can pick out myths on them Myths in art aren’t narration. We cannot represent Troy on a single pot, so you pick one moment. Ajax and Achilles serene moment of brotherhood, although no narration  System of mythology. Know of their bond, when Achilles dies, Ajax seeks to avenge him Archaic age  Decorative Near eastern motifs influenced o Get sphinxes  Only one sphinx in greek mythology, Oedipus solves the riddle  Time when the greeks spreading into black sea  Heracles becomes super popular Classical Age: associated with Athens and Democracy  Theseus becomes the new Heracles  Athens before 500BC Heracles associated with tyrants o Represents what democracy is opposed to o Theseus associated with creating democracy  Classical period democratic treatment of myth  Kinds of ways people are writing them o Mythographers write myths  Rise of literacy  Compile stories, collect them, give access to people to read  In turn mythographers gave rise to 5 century resource tragedy o Tragic poets: Escolas, Sophocles, Euripides (some tragedians)  Present at festivals: compose 3 tragedies and a short satyr play… drawn from mythology Epic poets, mythographers and tragedians main source What comes between us and them Hellenistic Age 336-Roman Era  Really smart, and liked to show it o Poetry that would reference obscure portions of myth to show they knew it all o Liked to make poetry that came off as reference books o Liked poetry that sorted mythology into categories  Metomorphoses changing  Catatasterisms idea of changing into a star o Hellenistic resources often didn’t survive  Just fragments or we get references to them  Works we get references from are Roman works  2 c. Paulsanius description of Greece in 10 books. References to local myths and authors. Roman age continues and adopts greek myths Face lift! Change names  Greek Zeus, latin Jupiter etc Ovid is a roman text, using the roman names of Greek Gods. Memorize the names of each god How people use myth differently. What is myth Emily Jennings How does myth reflect the times?: (paragraph questions?)  How do ancient representations of Heracles represent the ancient Greeks?  What does Disney’s Hercules tell us about our culture? Oedipus Laius told by Apollo not to have any kids. Kid will kill him and  Tries to abide but gets drunk  Oedipus raised in Corinth as a royal son. Hears rumours that he isn’t the son. He asks Apollo, and Apollo says you’re going to kill your dad and marry your mom. He runs away thinking Corinthians mom and dad  Meets Laius gets angry and kills him not knowing its his dad. Continues to Thebes, meets the sphinx, solves the riddle. People give his mother (unaware) as a prize. They get married, lots of kids.  Eventually finds out and is horrified. Talks to mom, but she’s committed suicide. Oedipus says he cant go to hades so he removes his eyeballs and gets banished from Thebes.  Ends up in Athens and becomes protector. ** Greek humans should not commit incest (Gods can do it but humans should not) Oedipus in Vegetable form Myth does not tell us lessons any more. Myth for entertainment, myth for consumption We don’t really interact with Greece as well. We don’t understand as well as we do Rome—calls them senators, but those did not exist in Greece We have to relate to Greece through Rome Olympiaganza Knowing myth in our society makes you smart Part of a classical education When you can understand references  ****Myth is a tool. It is a product in art and literature and reflects the culture and times of its production. It tells us more about ourselves than the actual myth Myth is a lie Does not reflect the truth. Powerful and inspires us to believe. But it is not the truth. It’s a lie that we want to believe. Not fact, but goes beyond fact in ability to connect us to a deeper truth Muthos myth  meaning of the word has shifted  1800 gay= happy, now= sexual orientation  muthos did not mean false, it referred to ―what is spoken‖ o reading homer in Greek, Achilles speech is a ―muthos‖. It is what is said not the content. o Logos. Means speech, comes to mean rational thought: truth. Associated with prose. What you use in which to write rational thought. o Greeks started to look at myths as not true, so they associated the poetry and content of poetry with lies. o Muthos=poetry=lies. Logos=prose=truth Types of Stories (Classification of Myths) Saga: saga is Icelandic and means myth supposed to have a basis in history. Like the Trojan war or most hero-based myths  Belief in myths there is a small nugget of truth  Para-history Legend: eg. Saint George slays the Dragon  Legend brought back from Crusaders  Stories about Saints. Comes from latin term: worth reading, important to read. Reading about them might make you a better Christian. Now the term is used for myths or stories with only a little bit of truth or history. o ** what is the difference between Saga and Legend? Folktale: term invented from German word. Folktake is defined by its content.  It is a folktale if it contains a type, stock, or standard figure ie wicked witch, evil step mother etc. The most common type is the every man. An everyman is someone who can stand in for anybody. Not special, normal.  Greek myth is generally not a folktale Fairy Tale: ie Cinderella  Variant of a folk-take but have fairies  Wont find them in Greek myth because there aren’t fairies ** when we think of folk-tales and fairy tales, we don’t consider them important, they are just as important. Myth: does not fall into any of the other categories  Usually involves gods or a clear religious element, even a philosophical purpose There is a de-evolution with myth  Associated with religious ritual and that is its function  The myth becomes history  The history becomes folk tale  The folk tale is used for art or literature o How we get that folk tales and fairy tales are less important o Conception that myth is on a higher plane ***For the purpose of this course, consider all non-historical stories as myth Meet our text: Ovid Roman poet, named Publius Ovidius Naso Born March 20 43 BC From Sulmo, ninety miles from Rome Studied law but then liked poetry. 43 BC, Imperial Roman: not writing in republic, writing at the beginning of empire at the time of Augustus. When Ovid writes, he cannot write what he wants. He has to write what Augustus has asked him to write Just like Horace, Vergil, Tibullus, Propertius etc. Ovid’s works:  Amores  Heroides o Finds jilted woman, pretends he’s her, and writes letter to the person who jilted her  Ars Amoris o How to get chicks  Remedia Amoris o Cure for love  Fastii o Important how it deals with myth  Metamorphoses o Epic poem! Something more serious (not that good at being serious, keeps diverting myth into love escapades)  Tristia o Sad things. Sad poem o Must have done something wrong when he wrote metamorphoses and got exiled in 8AD. Says he tried to destroy metamorphoses but it was already published Afterlife of the Metamorphoses  Ovid was criticized for the morality of his work, its treatment of the gods etc  After the first century AD he had a large following of poets. He is a very good poet.  When Roman poetry rediscovered, Ovid had a huge following (esp. 12AD) th  Only in the 19 century did Ovid ―go out of style‖ o Ovid is coming back though The Metamorphoses Preface Of bodies changed to various forms I sing…. ... Deduced from nature’s birth to Caesar’s times.  what time period he will cover For Ovid not just how bodies change, he is interested in change in genera. All change. Birth of the Cosmos, he says the earth changes from one thing to another it is a pattern. Start from something great, we will get worse and worse and worse, but then we will get the golden age again at ―our time‖. He is saying we have come full circle, Augustus is the golden age. The Metamorphoses’ Plan and Tone Explains origins Formal change  Flux of the universe how gods decisions affects people. What it means to be a human when gods can do anything  fundamental instability of human experience the change in him, from an Elegiac to Epic poet, a change that is not consistent in the writing. Books 1-6 look for human helplessness 6-11 how human beings are victims of own stupidity. 12-15 dealing with Troy, Rome and the apotheosis of Roman heroes  Praising Augustus. The ancestors of Augustus will bet gods etc. The Ways We Talk About Myth-Theories Emily Jennings RATIONALISM Greeks tried to make sense of myths Myths need to be explained rationally (women turning into trees)  Xenophanes 6th c BC o Humans make up gods to look like humans o He attacks the existence of gods = get rid of gods because they don't make sense  Plato 5th c philosopher o Myth doesn't make sense = why are gods immoral, strange things happen often o Myth teaches bad things (gods rape, gods kill) o Myth is a tool to educate o Plato created his own myth of Atlantis o Plato created the myth of Er  Journey in the after life = moral people are rewarded after life  Reincarnation ALLEGORY Carnal of truth Saying something in a different way  Takes a myth and turn it into something more acceptable o Daphne turns into a tree when she rejects Apollo = represents virginity, abstinence  Parallel to the culture that the myth is being told to (Daphne demonstrates ancient Greek's view of women) o Turning into a tree represents inaccessibility  Interpreting a myth is the same as retelling a myth TYPES OF ALLEGORY 1. Physical allegory  Earth, air, water, fire  Defines the world Theagenes 6th BC  Rationalize the war of gods  Gods represent physical elements (Poseidon sea = water, Apollo sun = fire)  Myths address cosmological and scientific grounds  Tool for stoic philosophers = how elements were given birth to o Misinterpreted allegory = example of etymology = roots of words o Cronus = Titan o Chronos = allegorical man representing time (father time) 2. Historical allegory  Finding history within myth  Euhemerus o Euhemerism = history of noble men and kings = confused and turned into myths  All myths start of from historical accounts during the Hellenistic age  Parian marble of Greek chronology of mythical kings o Palaiphtus  Myth is a disease of language = think of the telephone game  Overtime myths being passed down started to not make sense 3. Moral allegory  Judgment of Paris o Hera represents philosophical principle o Athena represents o Aphrodite represents amorous principle o Paris chose Aphrodite and began Trojan war = wrong choices have consequences  Zeus as swan rapes Lita o Swan represents power MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE APPROACHES  Medieval = recycle myth in the Christian world Ovid moralized  Interpretations of the racy stories in Ovid o Christian cannot condone rape, sex, etc. = revisions and reinterpretations o Story of Daphne turns into a botanical story about mixing elements to make nature Myth has profound symbolic truth concerning the spiritual realm  Not much diff than allegory  What truths can we find in myths by twisting it around to fit within Christian ideology o Myths are like distorted bible stores (battle of Troy = battle of Jericho) o Myth is a tool that Christian use as an allegorical truth THEORIES OF ENLIGHTENMENT 1650-1800 AD  Arrogant time period  Myths are symbolic of a primitive past and lesser minds Bernard Fontenelle 1657-1757 = de l'origine des fables  Myths are represented by primitive times  Arrogance due to exploration of natives o They are superior Giambattista Vico 1668-1754  Myths have three cycles of movement  Age of gods = primitive, nature is divine  Age of heroes = gods separated from men, institution, heroes are personified gods  Age of man = reason replaces instinctive imagination from which myth comes, philosophy replaces myth o Myth is part of early culture Other evolutionary model of myth  Relic of savagery  Anthropology  Psychology  Social sciences THE ROMANTIC APPROACHES 1800-1840 AD  Turn to myth as answer to eternal truth  Emotional side to eternal truth = as expressed in poetry, music, art  Evolution Friedrich Creuzer 1771-1858  Myth is absolute truth that Aryans have o But as Aryans spread throughout the world, the truth became obscure  Myth is rational abstract but becomes confused concrete stories when in text  Priests handed myths down to generations = confusions, diff variations of mythology Johann Bachofen 1815-1887  Believes in blissful age when women ruled = matriarchy o Evolutionary idea  Nomadic phase = lawless, people moved everywhere = Aphrodite  Institutional phase = laws, established cities = Demeter  Apollonian phase = Rome patriarchy, rationalism, individualism = Apollo ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORY  Myth was some sort of intellectual backwardness  Myth is primitive thinking  Understanding cultural origins of myth Edward Tylor 1832-1917  Animism = everything and everyone has a soul, soul is anima  Myth and religion is the reason of the idea of a soul James Frazer 1854-1941  Wrote golden bough o Renewal of king/priest through sacrifices for the sake of fertility o Fertility rights can be challenged by anyone with a golden bough o Myths share religious beliefs, symbols, practices, periodic sacrifices Malinowski 1914-1918  Myth is not a proof of science  Myth does not have an evolution to rationality  Myth is a justification or charter for the way things are = charter theory of myth LINGUISTIC THEORY  If you make myth to be universal, it will fail Max Mueller 1823-1900 prof fav  Solar mythology  Myth reduction = myth is a disease of language = carries on palaiphtus theory  Myth is an allegory on opposition of light and dark Andrew Lang Attacks mueller Proves mueller is an allegory himself and does not exist Indo european language Aryans are the first to speak this Common language = common culture = common patterns = related myths connection through speaking the same language Georges Dumezil 1898- Classes Rulers Warriors = Athena Priest Producer = Aphrodite human fertility, Demeter food fertility PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES  Psych = understand being and psyche  Myths stem from what humans share as a species and not culturally Sigmund Freud 1856-1939  Myths reflect human unconsciousness  Myths are the collective and recurring dream of a race  Oedipus complex = detest father, covet mother  Synthesizes diff elements and cultures and puts it in one long narrative o He does not understand that myth are representative of specific time and culture Carl Jung 1875-1961  Expands freudian theory with analytical psych  Myths are collectively organized to make sense STRUCTURALIST THEORIES  Meaning is not conveyed by the content of the myth o It doesn't matter that Apollo is chasing Daphne o What matters is the contrast between Apollo's desire for sex and Daphne not wanting it  Contrast is key = binary oppositions = life and death, male and fem, in and out, citizen and outsider  It ignores cultural uniqueness like psychological theory Claude Levi Strauss 1908-2009 Paris school of criticism CONTEXTUAL APPROACH Focus on culture  When and where a myth is told parallels with culture  Associated with feminism (Demeter and Persephone myth depicts women's role in society = mothers, marriage)  Find deep seeded truth within myth o Every myth tells us about the culture or approach that makes o Myth is a tool Cosmogony and Theogony Emily Jennings What we find in Hesiod theogony Difference between cosmogony and theogony Cosmogony: birth of cosmos Theogony: birth of the gods  Hesiod’s Theogony o How the world came to be. How it came to be that Zeus is king of the gods o Not just explaining where the gods came from, explaining the entire world. Just as much a cosmogony o poem that praises Zeus. How does it reinforce Zeus. In order to explain why he is a supreme god, why he will not lose his power The greek version of events does not come from nothing. Part of an interrelated set of events from the near east Chaos (a separation of 2 things.) (FAMILY EXPLAINS SPACE) || Gaea (Mother Earth); Tartarus (the other world); Eros (different ideas of where his birth came from: Hesiod says he is a pre-Zeus innate sexual power. One who can use his power over Zeus. Is he a grandson or comes before Zeus? Zeus always taken over by Zeus aka LOVES SEX);  Principle movement of world. Why do things come into sexual contact? Gaea comes right out of Chaos. Once Eros shows up, Gaea has Sex with Uranos and then the next generation Gaea || Pontus, Ourea, Uranus (didn’t want his children to be born)  Uranus=Gaea o Cyclopes (helped Zeus take power) o Hecatonchires (hundred handers, helped Zeus take power. Like Zeus’ Mercenaries) o Titans  Hyperion—Titan of the Sun (FAMILY EXPLAINS TIME)  Son Helios, daughter Seline (moon), daughter aos (dawn)  Rhea  Cronos Sea was where the unexpected place happen Gaea=Pontus (Sea God) || Monsters: ** Greeks took their monsters from other ideology  Harpies (snatchers) from Egyptian mythology, male, benevolent o  female! come and snatch you to death  Greek men who wrote myth, females were misunderstood, lots of female monsters. They were afraid of women’s power  Sphinx—Egyptian sign of power of pharaoh, male, benevolent o  female, dangerous. Terrorized Thebes until Oedipus solved the riddle ** how to make Greek Monsters: Lots of same body parts, mix and match body parts etc. What happens with titans Uranus will not get off of Gaea (the Earth)  No space in which Zeus can rule over mortal realm  Succession myth  Cronos separates earth and sky  He makes a space for mortals o Cuts off Uranus’ gentles o Cant keep having sex with Gaea if doesn’t have the parts o Uranus is Casterated, man parts fly through the sky  From these blood bits, get:  GIANTS huge powerful and full of violence  Representation of what you get when you have kin killing kin  Erynes/ FURES  Deities of Revenge  Family injurs family  APHRODITE  How could she be a daughter of Zeus and have the power to make him chase after women? Same as Eros  Personification of human sexual desire  Springs from the testicles of Uranus  Born from the foam  Hesiod gives false etymology of her name o Aphrodite born in ocean o Terrifying, so we connect her with the sea. Like another monster  Cronos: is a succession myth o Cronos is terrified and thinks he will be taken over by his son.  Eats his children when they pop out of Rhea  Rhea goes to Gaea for advice.  Gaea is the first fertility. Supports the Youngest (Cronos and then Zeus)  Hides Zeus on Crete and helps him take over. Gaea supports principle of change and youth  When Zeus takes over, he is a trickster god, Cronos like an ogre. Eats a rock and thinks its his kid. Succession myth, always clever trickster taking over from stupid ogre.  Hesiod does not say how Zeus took over. Other sources do.  Gets help from Matis (cleverness)  Gave Cronos stuff to puke up kids/the stone  Same stone as that at Delphi  Zeus reign not secure: Gaea always instigator of change o Threat will be taken over by son Titanomachy battle with the titans  First threat to Zeus’ reign, is when Gaea tries to instigate change (not supporting youngest anymore)  Gets titans: embodiments of all powers in nature  Zeus must be clever and a statesmen: enlists help from Hundred hangers, and Cyclopes ultimate weapon thunderbolt. Does not rely on brute force and more clever Typhoeomachy battle with Typhon  Typhon Zeus smites him. o Hymn to Zeus. Does not want to represent Zeus being beaten down  Pseudo-Apollodorus 2 Century o Find obscure variants of myth like the hellenists  Gaea=Tartarus Typhon  Zeus chased Typhon, typhon cut power out of Zeus’s hands and feet  Hermes renewed Zeus’ power by putting sinews back  Zeus first gets beaten  Short tale in Ovid o Doesn’t talk much about birth of the cosmos or the birth of the gods  Metamorphoses about human beings. He wants to focus on human suffering and human woes ***THEREFORE  myth tools. Reflect reason as to why the story is being told Gigantomachy War with the Giants –Last threat Giants children of Gaea and Uranus  Gaea’s threat to Zeus’ reign  Zeus wins by using a prophesy o If he gets the help of the mortals, he can win with battle  Herecules helps him defeat the giants **if you make a timeline of all of myth, will not work. Trying to put it all together cannot work. That is why herecules can pop up in the Gigantomachy How Zeus deals with the threat of Gaea: succession myth  How Zeus came to STAY in power why never gets taken over o Zeus would have to be stupid and tricked by a cleverer person. o Zeus marries Metis (cleverness himself)  Prophecy says his kids with metis. Instead eats metis so cleverness is his and his alone. RECAP *Older gods ogre/dragons Uranus (ogre) Cronos (clever to overthrow Uranus/Stupid when Zeus overthrows) Zeus (eats cleverness) *Greek understanding women have crucial role in human succession. Fear of women is a main theme and why the ambivalence of the female= monsters *Family conflict driving myth in greek mythology *Theogony gradual shift from original unity to plurality to divinities in Zeus’ reign *Zeus reign over the female reign= patriarchy emerges. Confirms Zeus’ place in the cosmos. Justifies every greek male’s place in his household. Leading man is the head of the Household because Zeus is the head of his household.  THEREFORE Zeus is the father of all the gods and MAN HOW MORTALS CAME TO BE Aetion story that explains the origin of something Eg origin of animal sacrifice  Ovid 1. 76-86 o Prometheus makes man o Means fore-thinking  Name actually meant thief o  Hesiod there is nothing good about women to Hesiod. His world sucked and he blamed women o Pandora o Ages of man o Prometheus is central o Prometheus is a trickster god.  ―Zeus played along and wasn’t really tricked by Prometheus‖  hymn to Zeus so confusion in text  that is why they burnt bones and fats to the gods  stole fire in fennel stock (fennel fire resistant)  Zeus angry and so decided to punish men woman  Pandora made of mud she is sheer guile  tricking you by looking pretty o like Zeus was tricked into taking the pretty thing that has no substance, same with MEN o Pandora comes with a Jar. Women carry water in Jars. Women connected to containers  Membrane for foetus. The womb is a jar, women carry jars, Pandora brings a jar.  Fertility rite sacrifice of a plant in a jar  A jar doesn’t work but you put food in it. a lot of virgins who run around with a Jar or a basket  Symbolism for asking for raping from god.  Hope is in the jar. Hope is in the womb. Prometheus  Set on a rock, and eagle of Zeus will come eat his liver. Because he is immortal, liver will regrow and will happen all over again.  Aeschylus—Prometheus Bound: one of the first tragedians o Prometheus brings all the gifts of culture to man kind  Aka, all the tings that separate from men and animals.  Arts and crafts, sacrifice etc. th  Told at the height of culture in 5 century Athens. Philosophy, drama, art etc. Story of the Ages Hesiod: Works and Days 5 races: Near eastern version of ages. Needs Heroes. Cannot put in gold and silver age, because there is no strife. Cannot have them post iron age. Decreasing value.  Gold o Best: rule of Cronos (Saturn in Ovid) o Perpetual spring o No strife  Silver o People who died became immortal spirits  Bronze o People died and went to hades  Heroes o Decreasing value, but better than bronze age. o Heroes sent to a special place when they died. o Ages of heroes doesn’t really fit scheme.  Iron Age o Hesiod’s age o For him, women are terrible. But he hates his world. He wishes he was one of the heroes, or he had been born after.  Somehow will have a cycle o Product of time… radical change  Greek movement not by choice. Poor farmers told they have to leave or have to be slaves o Probably why Hesiod is a grump Ovid  Gold, silver, bronze, iron, GOLD Augustus. o Like the idea that there would by a cycle, suggests Augustan age is the new Golden age. Universal Flood Story is pre-biblical  Earliest example from Sumer 3 millennium BC o Enki the clever god. All the gods of Sumer decide they don’t like mankind. o Enki wants to save the pius human Ziusudra.  Semetic text 1700 BC o Men are too loud so they will kill them o Try plague famine etc but then decide there would have to be a flood o Enlil (god) saves Ea in a big boat. o Gods realized there would be more humans so devised infant death Ovid’s recount  How the gods can wipe out mankind in a whim.  Lycaon represents evil and wickedness o Zeus visits Lycaon, says he’s a god, and Lycaon comes to kill Zeus in the night. o Zeus decides to flood the world o Deucalion and Phyrra saved because they are Pius and connected to clever trickster god Prometheus  Prometheus is Deucalion’s father  Throw stones as bones, and the stones turn into man and women  Have a son named Hellen eponym for Greece  He has Dorus, Aeolus and unimportant son who has Ion. Dorus eponym for Dorians, Aeolus eponym for Aeolians , and Ion for the Ionians Prominent themes *origins of man in some way related to the earth. Earth is fertility being so it makes sense they come from the earth *Greek term for people=Laos, stone=Laas  Humans like agriculture. They spring from the ground *artisan gods who make things *takes multiple ages for it to work *separation is a very important theme  separation of space in theogony  if the earth made man, and earth made gods, why are they not the same? o See this in the 4 or 5 ages. Degeneration of human kind  Pandora completes divide o Gods don’t NEED to procreate but do. Men HAVE to TEST 4 pages.  1 page fill in the blank o spelling extremely important in this section  proper name or term nd  2 page 8 multiple choice questions o identify term by definition in there etc rd  3 page short answer o short, full sentences, grammar. Aka a sentence or two. th  4 page paragraph question. Format, grammar and spelling. o One paragraph, no choice. o Need a topic sentence, then follow up with 3 proofs. End with a concluding sentence. Focus on myths of ages, birth of cosmos etc. Expect you to understand the theories. GET THE NOTES The Gods Emily Jennings How do the gods fit under Zeus’ rule? Why are they not a threat? Aetion= explains the origins of something Aetiology= study of aetions Anthropomorphism= form like a human gods like humans, and have the shape of humans  Have human features but have something special that makes them different The gods have lots in common with the humans Head of a household Political system They have sex (distinctly human characteristic)  Don’t need to have sex, but they do. And its not like human sex They eat and have food but it is different=ambrosia  Humans have wine, gods have nectar  Also gods eat but don’t poop Gods’ blood not like human blood, its called ichor. Why are gods different? They don’t die Things that are serious to men are not serious to the gods  Infidelity The 12 Olympians not a set in stone 12 Zeus  Sky god.  Anax/Basileus= Greek words for King  Strongest god, that is why he is in charge.  Attributes: Aegis ―goat skin‖, lightning bolt, justice (dike), xenia (relationship between a guest and host)  Subject to the fates difficult relationship  Zeus is a lover. 115 lovers o Europa  carrying a basket (aka ready for the plucking), Zeus comes up in the shape of a bull. Convinces Europa to get on his back, and he stole her away to crete o Leda and the Swan  Married, but Zeus turns into swan and rapes her o Danae  Zeus turns into a golden shower o Callisto  Virgin follower of artemis. Zeus turns himself into artemis and rapes her. Hera turns her into a bear, then her son becomes a hunter and tries to kill her. Zeus turns them into constellation. o Ganymede  Justification for why human Greek males enjoyed other boys  If Zeus does it then it is natural  God Wives o Metis ―cleverness‖  Athena pops out of his head o Themis  The fates Moerae, and Horae (the seasons) o Eurynome  The 3 graces o Mnemosyne ―memory‖  The 9 muses  Inspire poets to sing  Dione, a titanness or Oceanid alternate birth of aphrodite o Aphrodite?  Hera Hera  Mother Goddess/fertility goddess  Feminine of Hero?  Goddess of marriage/woman’s fertility o Perfect match for Zeus o Cannot help overthrow Zeus because she stands for marriage o Never attacks Zeus, she goes after his lovers. SHE HAS TO  Adultery a threat to marriage therefore very opposed to it.  Associated with cows  HERA IS MORE THAN AN EARTH GODDESS Poseidon  Master of movement of earth and sea. Called the shaker of the earth. Lord of the Deep, God of Earthquakes, Horses  Shows up in the Mycenaean period. Posis means lord.  Nather of Neleus, grandfather of Nestor; pylos  Married to Amphitrite  A lot like Zeus, powerful, rapes a lot of women etc Hades  Refer to hades as pluto=wealth  Don’t like mentioning hades because talking about the underworld is a bad omen  Not many myths with him  The way we perceive hades is VERY different than how the greeks did o We see him like satan/the devil: bad relationship with god, stuck in hell, kicked out of olympia o From Christian stories, we have put the idea of his hatred of Zeus onto him  He has a wife, but no kids. Because he is the god of the dead. Hestia  Goddess of the hearth  Her fire is the heart of rome  Only has one myth she goes to Zeus and asks him to free her from having to get married, and to stay with him and tend the hearth. He agrees. She is the perfect woman to the greek mind. She is not seen, she is not talked about. Athena  Daughter of Zeus. Pops out of his head after he eats Metis  No real mother so always subservient to Zeus. No one to divide loyalty  Mistress of the city of Athens  Athens was not named after her, she was probably named after Athens  Mycenaean area  Virgin, but there is no danger of her having sex o Manish goddess goddess of warfare o Only one story of someone who tries to rape her, comes too soon, and sperm on her leg becomes king of Athens.  Parthenon house of the virgin  Protector of cities where men acted  Represented by owl and olive tree.  Protects crafts like weaving (female—ovid story of arachne) and carpentry  Shown wearing armour  Protector of heroes—always helping odysseus, built the argo for Jason so he could get the golden fleece  Associated with wisdom, tactical and logical side of war Dionysus (next class) Apollo  Son of Zeus and Leto, twin of Artemis  Doesn’t show up in Mycenaean period, associated with Lycia  Delos. Born there, rooted it. Richest and most celebrated shrine in Greece. No body lives on Delos. No one can be born, and no one can die on Delos. Cult site  Delphi politically powerful site. Leaders would ask what they should do. Apollo turned into dolphin (delphis) to pick his priests on a ship. Aetion for why Delphi is called that way. o Oracle  Pythia head priestess. Sits in tripod, she babbles answer to question, and the male priest interprets it.  Personal questions, community questions, political questions.  Oracles responses legendary for being obscure  By the end of the dark age, he is a greek god  Great son for Zeus o on the cusp of manhood o never old enough to establish his own household  has a lover named Cassandra  tricks him into getting prophetic powers  doesn’t get to have sex or kids or marriage  associated with the sun. his sister associated with the moon. Stand in for Helios and Selene  always has a bow for plague  plays lyre musical instrument epic poets used. Music of the elite o Apollo associated with the elite class  Said to be the leader of the muses Artemis  Ephesus one of the seven wonders of the world  Twin sister of Apollo, daughter of zeus and leto  Called a potnia theron which means mistress of the animals.  Goddess of the hunt  Makes everyone fertile  Associated with death through childbirth  Greek myth she is a virgin. Associated with the wild because she hasn’t learned to be subservient to a husband.  Always in danger of having sex. Always on the brink of having sex o Virginity threatened, so has to respond with force Aphrodite  Overwhelming power of human sexual attraction  Scholars thing she is a distortion of eastern fertility goddesses.  Myth makes it clear that she is associated with the east.  12 century worshiped in pathos. Cult cite in Kythera  Prostitution: woman became priestesses. High born women come to be ―priestesses‖ but pimped themselves out. Corinth here too. Prostitution worship  Name is not greek origin. Hesiod says from foam, but it’s a false etymology  Power over zeus Aphrodite can make him fall in love with 115 women  In the end zeus takes over her powers because hes tired of it. He makes her fall in love with a mortal (anchisesaeneas) which shames her. She is under the power of the man who is penetrating. Penetration make them in power. Confuses the roles because she is under the power of the mortal being.  Children o Eros o Hermaphroditus  Child from hermes—pretty boy and a rambunctious nymph likes him, she tackles him and prays they never be separated. That’s how we get hermaphrodite o Priapus  Hermes or Dionysus father  Fertility god of the garden: dirty little gnome  Popular with the romans  Known for having a large erect phallus Ares  Roman mars  Son of Zeus and Hera  NOT THE GOD OF WAR  Incarnation of blood lust. His name probably means curser  Shows up in Mycenaean period  God of bloodlust, bad side of war  Not worshiped, don’t want him in warfare  3 kids but not married o personify him o son panic, daughter harmonia what you get when you unite love and war, Hephaestus  Son of potentially just Hera. That’s why he is a gimp  Connected to volcano, fire, and Cyclopes  Name used in literature as fire  God of smiths o God of male crafts o Greeks look down on people who work with their hands. o Hephaestus object of ridicule, not the kind of god you look up to  Married to Aphrodite  They don’t have any children. Cannot have a kid with goddess who embodies sex  Aphrodite is having an affair with ares Hermes  Roman Mercury  Son of Zeus and Maia  God of trail markers, herma=pile of stones  Hermes= turns away evil. Mark the limits of the land  Hermes god of travellers and god who crosses boundaries. God of shepherds and flocks  Patron of thieves  Mischievous god  political opposite of Apollo. God of the class below the elites  slayer of argos  god of merchants—they have to travel and cross boundaries  Get the term merchant from Hermes—Mercury  Psychopompos guy who escorts souls to the underworld. Leads persephone back  Herald and messenger god. o Good son for zeus, heralds have to obey their master o Hermes 2 kids  Autolycus (maybe odysseus’ father), and pan (inspires you with irrational fear—panic Moerae= the 3 Fates Spin the thread of fate Clotho=spinner Lachesis= apportioner Atropos= cuts the thread Whether they are a daughter of Zeus or came before him  The fates have power over Zeus  Cannot disturb the natural order RECAP Goddesses are all connected to fertility: Hestia life of house, artemis abundance of wild animals and birth, hera fertility and marriage. Athena is weird, but she is still connected to women because she is the goddess of women  ***this is how the greek men saw the goddesses, all male reflections Emily Jennings Divine/Hero Myth Emily Jennings Introduction to heroic myth  Humans are protagonists not the gods  Narrative about the events in the human, not divine, past  Hero o Homer: noble-born male who’s alive  Elite, not necessarily nice  Not a morally superior being  Hero because aristocratic, stronger than men  Usually a danger to society. Presenting a danger to the standard way society functions o Later/modern: noble figure from the distant past  Will sacrifice of himself in order to preserve the greater good For the next week a hero is the protagonist Tombs of Heroes  Object of hero cults o Heroa  Bonze age earthen mounds o Sema  Cults and tumuli of Alyattes, Achilles, Theusu  Would provide gifts, blessings etc to those who came to ask Oedipus will provide benefits if he is able to be buried in Athens  Athenian propaganda **how a hero accepts death Tumuli cults date from the Iron age Associated with the popularization of the heroic myth via writing No heroes in Egyptian and semitic myth—don’t need the negotiation with death, their afterlife is awesome Gilgamesh  Real king in the city Sumerian story  The great hero of Mesopotamia  Oldest literary epic  Not a good king, arrogant and abuses people o Takes brides on wedding night and says he has the right to take their virginity  Enkidu the Wildman sent to stop Gilgamesh o G sends whore to trap Enkidu o Enkidu not wild anymore, his understanding has broadened culture of society  Enkidu attacks Gilgamesh, g wins but g and en realise each others strength so bonding Gilgamesh and Ishtar  Ishtar mother goddess. She things Gilgamesh is nice looking so she invites him to come to her bed  G rejects her terribly o She is angry because he says things that shouldn’t be said to a goddess o Sends bull of heaven lots of holes in the ground  Epic bull fight, Enkidu will win with Gilgamesh o Gods send dream to enkidu, enkidu dies of sickness  His punishment for being arrogant  Gilgameshs punishment, b/c he is responsible for the death  Gilgamesh goes on a heroes journey to become immortal LEARN THE PATH OF THE HEROES JOURNEY Every stage of the path The hero caught between nature and culture  The quest for knowledge about death could not be Egyptian o They knew the answers no fear  Understandable …. Pp  Folktale motifs and heroic myths  Partly divine birth  Miraculous birth and childhood  Great strength is a benefit and menace  A friend  Falls under enemy’s power of spell  Breaks a taboo  Is tempted  Responsible for friends’ death  The quest  Help from gods  Return home  Rewarded for efforts  Great funeral Myths of the Argive Plain Perseus  Descendant of Io Aegyptus and brother Danaaus 50 sons, 50 daughters. Didn’t want to get married so women all except 1 killed their husbands The survivor and his wife are the beginning of the line of argos Springs and the Dangers of Women Women bury the heads of husbands at Lerna (where Hercules will fight hydra)  Heads of the 50 suitors match the 50 springs of lerna Lyceus (the one spared) in Argos after Danaus His son Abas has twins  Acrisius rules in Argos  Proetus rules in Tiryns  Acrisius has a daughter Danae but wants sons o Danae locked up because he was told his male heir will kill him o Zeus comes as a golden shower and impregnates her o Perseus is the son. Danae and Perseus locked up o Set adrift in a box, Perseus raised by a fisherman o Will go after the gorgons  Magical help  Helmet of invisibility, sharp sword, and Athena guided his hand Gorgons Power to turn humans into stone. The evil eye, same idea as gargoyle Need an evil eye to turn away another evil eye. APOTROPAIC  Stheno  Euryale  Medusa (the only mortal gorgon) o Priestess of Athena, Poseidon rapes her in the temple so she is turned into a gorgon Perseus and Andromeda A variant has perseus returning to Seriphos after a few adventures Monster comes for Andromeda  Monster is Ceto not the Kraken. That is a Germanic mythical sea monster  Saves Andromeda and will get married to Perseus  A already had finance, but Perseus turns everyone to stone at his marriage feast  Perseus stays for a year (not on the quest) with Andromeda and has a son  Perseus kills grandpa  Swaps Agos for Tyrans, founds Mycenae  Perseus and Andromeda will be turned into constellations The Death of Acrisius Foretold death of his grandfather Competing unrecognised in athletic competition  Throws discus, winds come up and hits Acrisius and he dies.  A hero is dangerous even if he doesn’t mean to be Perseus and Folktale Nearly a child’s fairy tale  Partly divine birth, miraculous birth (born from golden shower)  Great strength, threat and menace  No motif of friend or no threat of enemy’s power, not break taboo, not tempted, not responsible for friends death: story of Perseus as we have it is designed for children. Focused on the quest, neglects elements that deal with negotiation between life and death  Does have quest, help from the gods  Return home, rewarded with kingdom and wife Danai the mother Prohibition  Cannot marry Seclusion  Locked away Violation of Prohibition  Shower Threat of punishment or death  Set adrift in a box Liberation  Save by Dictys Odd Heroes Emily Jennings Oedipus  Thebian Cycle Thebes  Cadmus and the Dragon (Europa is his sister) o Cadmus settled in Thebes when he couldn’t find his sister o Follow the cow with the special mark and found your city where she rests (Boetia) o Sends men to a spring, and a dragon lives there  Eats his men  Cadmus alone with no help founding his city. Must beat the dragon  Lots of dragon fighting motif in divine myth  Cadmus kills the dragon  Dragon is a servant of Ares. Athena tells Cadmus to pull out his teeth and plant half of them in the soil. The Spartoy (sewn men) come out of the soil eastern motif  These men fight eachother and whoever wins gets to be part of the elite houses of Thebes  Since Cadmus kills dragon, he has to serve Ares for 8 years.  It is prophesized that Cadmus will become a snake at the end of his life o Gets Thebes for killing the snake, and Harmonia Ares and Aprodite’s kid  Gets a gift from Aphrodite from Hephaestus (the one Aphrodite cheated on)  Cursed necklace  Action  Pantheus o Ripped apart by his mother  Melacartes o Ino and Achomas  Protecting Dionysus and Hera drives them mad.  Oedipus o Cadmus from the East, and goes back to the East. Goes to Ileria o Becomes a king there, and prophecy fulfilled  Amphion and Zethus (twins) o Building of the walls of thebes second foundation myth, bizarre because already found o Polydorus takes over after Pantheus ripped apart form mother  He dies, wife’s father takes over  Rule of the city determined by the female line in Thebes  Reflection of the time perhaps o Antiope, Daughter of Nycteus (who took over from Polydorus) is raped  Nycteus banishes her, but is so ashamed so he commits suicide.  His brother Lycus takes over and steals Antiope and drags her back to thebes  On the way, birth to sons Amphion and Zethus in the wilderness, left in a bush and taken care of by a shepherd  MIRACULOUS CHILDHOOD MOTIF  Antiope is tortured daily by DIRCE (antonym) wife of Lycus  Escapes and comes upon her twins  Return to thebes and kills dirce, and tossed into a spring. Important spring in thebes called Dircyon spring  Twins take over o Amphion=musition o Zethis=cattleman  Common motif in twins, opposite personalities, come together and one whole person  Twins usually either exceptionally close, or they are at war with eachother  Ie Romulus and Remus (war)  At peace with eachother  Establish walls of Thebes  Zethus marries Thebe  Amphion marries Niove o Tells Lito that twins are not as good as having 14 children  Apollo and Artemis kill all her 14 children Founding of thebes  One near eastern, modeled adter Cosmic dragon combat o Brought by immigrants or original founders o Mesopotamian cylinder seals found in Thebes in excavation.  Put on letters to show where letter coming from. King or City  like a ring seal, made of clay  2500-1300BC. Found together suggesting some sort of treasure trove  ancient version of safe?  Left behind when Mycenaean people destroyed  Think about Thebes in Eastern terms  Cadmus’ name means ―from the east‖ o Phoinikia grammatia  Writing connected to Thebes. Writing from the east, Cadmus from east, so 1+1=3 and Cadmus brought writing  False connection. Writing before Cadmus came to Greece  Local and more like a folktale o Twins with opposing characters, wicked stepmom, ―just in time‖ escape ** Thebes difficult to excavate, don’t know much about structure of thebes Oedipus the King  Labdacus (another unnoticed son of Polydorys) o His son Laius flees to Thebes to Elis (King Pelopos)  Awkward melding of the myths  Chrysippus  Violates host code. Guest friendship cursed  Rapes Host’s son o Curse will affect Oedipus and his children. Will destroy himself and thebes  An Oracle’s message: ―your son will kill you and marry your wife‖ o Laius and Jocasta mutilate the feet of the child and give him to a shepherd to expose on the mountain  Shepherd doesn’t want to kill him so King Polybus in Corinth adopted him.  Called him ―swollen food‖ false reason for his name  Oedipus finds out from his friends he isn’t related to Corinth  Delphi tells him he will kill his father and marry his mother o Kills his dad on the way to Thebes  Meets up with Sphinx, solves the riddle o No one can answer, and the sphinx eats them o Defines hero Oedipus, hero of intellect  Solves the riddle  Man  Answer also Oedipus: crawls when feet driven through with a stake. Man he walks, and blinds himself so needs to use a cane  Cautionary tale, can be everyman  Has many kids by mom o Polynices, Antigone, 2 more **** SOPHOCLES ACCOUNT  movement driven by Oedipus’ questioning, discovering who he is  Plague because of the murder of Laius  Oedipus curses murderer (Ironic) o Must be banished  Teiresias accused Odedipus of killing Laius o Doesn’t believe, but acknowledges he isn’t related to Corinth  Jocasta tries to say it is false. Gives him the details that it was some random person on a cross roads o What Oedipus needs to put 2+2 together  Messenger arrives from Corinth, Polybus not real father of Oedius o Same shepherd who received Oedipus from the mountain where he was left o Reveals of Oedipus he comes from Thebes  ELATED because he thought he is the son of a god, something like that. Build up of excitement, thinks things will go great  Jocasta however has realized who he was  Truth comes out. Truth is terrible o Greek mindset  No happy endings, the truth is terrifying  Oedipus found discrepancy between who he is and who he thinks he is o Any Greek would do this o Oedipus does not have a flaw that leads to his downfall  That is what makes the story so powerful. Oedipus did nothing wrong, he did everything he was supposed to do. But the truth was powerful and destructive  Sons do not help him, and fight over who can rule thebes o Oedipus curses them  With a sword they will sunder the binding ties of kingship  Will fight to the death  Seven against Thebes  Next instalment of the Theban cycle Oedipus: Heroic Sufferer of truth or victim of curiosity?  He is both. Trying heroically like any greek would do to find out who he really is.  He is also curious because he is an intellectual  OEDIPUS not like other COSMIC HEROES o Not of divine birth o Overthrows father but creates disorder not order Accounts of Oedipus In Homer’s version, Oedipus continues as king after the truth is discovered Sophocles, he blinds himself and eventually is exiled  What made Sophocles’ account an ideal tragedy  When he discovers the truth, when fate changes VOCAB Anagnorisis= recognition  Where the hero discovers the truth Peripateia=reversal  Reversal of stature occurs o Oedipus the king, to Oedipus the blind man, beggar, exile Pharmakos=healing  He acts as a sacrificial figure. Takes blame onto himself and when he leaves, the plague does too Seven against Thebes  Eteocles and Polynices rule in alternative years  Etocles renegates  Poly in exile o Goes to Argos  Motif of a friend Tydeus  Adrastus will restore the two to their kingdoms  Great leaders summoned  Amphiaraus is a prophet. He knew that all but Adrastus will die, but convinced to go because his Wife was bribed by the necklace of Harmonia  Tydeus at Thebes (best friend) o Herald mission, tries to negotiate with Eteocles to step down o Pins all their champions in wrestling  One guy who comes in in enemy territory and can beat everyone  Thebians angry and attempted to ambush him  Tydeus kills everybody but one.  Epic and folktale motif figure  Will have horrendous death. All but Adrastus will have horrendous death Seven Gates of Thebes  Prophecy delivered that if one of the lead families sacrifices themselves. Menoeceus does that (sewn men) o Adrastus, o Amphiaraus prophet who knows they will die  decides to run away but before he is killed, zeus swallos him in the earth  Zeus fond of Seers. There is a spot near thebes where Amphiarus gives oracles o Capaneus  Arrogant man. Says he can take down Thebes by himself. Even zeus cant stop him. Climbs walls, and struck down by lightening of zeus. o Hippomedon  Does what all good epic heroes do. Aka fights a river.  Idea of swollen river symbolises epic poetry, hellenistics talk about springs  Taking on epic poetry himself  Beaten down by the river o Polynices o Tydeus  So many bodies piled up around him that he cant move anymore, so he is killed  Athena goes to give him immortality  Does something horrendous so Athena has to abandon him  He hates his body, Tydeus kills the guy who killed him.  Asks to have head cut off He is eating the mans brains  Violated taboo. Can no longer get immortality, Athena discusted and will leave o Parthenopeus  Means ―face of a maiden‖  Wants to prove himself as a real warrior. Just dies lol Eteocles and whatever kill eachother with same blow Sophocles Antigone next stage of story  Creon now riles thebes forbids the burial of Polynices (died attacking thebes) o Attackers left on battlefield to be eaten by birds  Big no no, should not leave people out  Antigone angry, because she is the sister of both Eteocles and P  Caught and banishes her to be outside in the city territory  Buried alive and will be wife of Hades  Haemon (antigones fiancé and Creon’s son, menoceus’ brother) doesn’t think a good iea  Tireseus the prophet says big mistake, the kids will be cursed o Creon relents, goes to bury poly. o Antigone already hanged herself in the cave o Haemon tries to kill Creon, but fails. Then he kills himself o His wife will learn her son is dead, so kills herself o Creon comes back with no family Revenge of the Parthenos  Play is a circle of oposites o Male/female o Living/dead  Obligation to dead brother not to living people of thebes, not Creon o Humans/Gods  Always somewhere o Politically  Antigony is conservative and creon is progressive o Philosophically  Creon advocates nomos: city  Antigone only cares about bloodlines o Gender roles  Antigone is the untamed virgin ehich no civic power can stop  Unmarried women always dangerous The Epigoni 10 years later the 7s sons will attack Thebes again  will be successful, will wipe out thebes  end of family line Alcaeon son of Eriphyle and Amphiarus, avenges his father;s death by killing mother  Ordered to do so by dather before seven against thebes He is driven insane and killed himself.  Never will survive blood guilt JASON Argonautica apolonius of rhodes  Aeolus o Athamas+Nephele  Prixus (son)  Daughter helle o Athamus will mary Ino daughter of Cadmus  2 sons. Ino concerned Phrixus his first born will take over when Ath dies  arranges trap to have stepson killed  parches grain  intercepts messenger to Delphi  bribes him to say phrixus must be sacrificed  athamus about to sacrifice phrixus. Golden ram appears and they escape, fly eastword. o Helle falls off ram into sea. Sea known as the Hellespont  the sea of Helle, origin of that name o Phryxus flies to Colchis where Aeetes is king, related ot son god  Receives Phrixus, gives him the golden ram. A. sacrifices ram to Apollo. Golden fleece. Athamas’ neice (tyro)  2 sons by Poseidon o pelias who will become king in lolchus  2 sons by mortal Cretheus o Aeson and Pheres  Important not connected to gods, this is the family line that Jason comes from  Pelias imprisons Aeson, but Aeson is supposed to be king. o Aeson’s wife has Jason  Raised by Chiron the centaur  Associated with raising heroes  Raises Achilles o P. warned to beware of man with one sandal. Jason at river  Hera there pretending to be old woman o Wants to destroy Pelias because he doesn’t honour her o Have Jason to get fleece, gets medea and she will be death of Pelias  What would you do if you knew someone wanted to kill you asked by Pelias to Jason o Jason says he would send him to get the golden fleece. o Jason gets sent to get fleece  Built Argo, built by Argus and Athena, goddess of carpentry  Said to be first ship ever.  Bow from Dodona, site of Zeus where the trees speak prophesies. Putting prophetic beam on the ship. Argo said to be able to speak and make prophesies by itself  Athena adds this beam.  Gets best sailors of the day  Justice league of the ancent day  Herakles and Hylas, Meleager, the Boreads (can fly, important role), Orpheus (sing so beautifully, can make trees and rocks come towards him), Peleus (will be father of Achilles), Mopsus (great prophet), Telamon, Tipys (helmsman, steers the boat. Need him to go to the edge of the world)  Jason is not special.  What defines him is leadership ability Odd Heroes pt2 Emily Jennings Argonautica Apollonius of Rhodes  Love poem  Passion  Hellenistic poem Women of Lemnos  Earlier killed their men for refusing them o Argonauts service the sex-starved women  They get caught in a world of sex and women  Danger to epic quest  Heracles shamed they had been caught up in sleeping with women o Heracles preserves the company of his boyfriend o Samocles  Cysicus must be nice to strangers  When they leave, storm blows them back to Samocles  Cyzicus killed by Jason after unknowing battle Heracles and Hylas Hylas kidnapped by nymphs of the spring Heracles searches for him but cant find him  How Heracles left the Argonaut  Twins encourage Argonaut to leave without them o Heracles will take revenge Early Advenures  Amycus o Always wins fighting o Until he meets Polydecues  Leto and swan is mother Phineus and Harpies (snatchers)  King Phineus famous seer  Blabber mouth. Likes to tell the secrets, doesn’t guard what he knows about the future o Zeus mad about this. Zeus usually likes seers but apparently not Phineus  Violating job  Zeus sends harpies. Will snatch his food and drink every time he eats/drinks. Sometimes would leave some so he would live  Harpies fly o Boreades twins can fly so they go fight the harpies o Chase harpies to the end of the earth  Eternal chase Symplegades the clashing rocks  Argo talked to Phineus so they know what to do  Send a dove into the rocks, if the dove gets through, so will they  Only a small bit of the dove’s tail feathers shorn off, but unharmed o That’s what happened to argo o End of the symplegades being crashing rocks because of prophesy Medea and the Golden Fleece  M. daughter of meets, first sees Jason o Aphrodite sends eros so she falls inlove o Aeetes expecting stranger who will be his downfall  Gives Jason tasks  Yolk firebreathing bulls  Medea gives him ointments to protect him from flames, and rocks so he can throw it to the warriors that sprout instead of killing him  Jason cannot do things by himself, he is a very different kind of hero (if that’s what he is)  Jason gets the fleece with the help of Medea  Run away o Aeetes in persuit o Medea kills her brother  Zeus angry  Wrath of zeus will not cease unless Circe (related by blood to Circe) purifies her Media epitome of the ―other‖  Does things you should not do  To her family Libya  Pick up the Argo and carry it out of the desert  Meet nymphs of Hesperides, signifying fringe of society  Heracles is there  Triton helps them o God of the sea  Talus of Crete o Gigantic bronze being that has been given to Europa who was kidnapped and taken to Crete by Zeus o Beat him by unplugging him  Poem stops as they’ve left Crete, end of the Argonautica The Deflated hero  What we should call Jason.  The hero who cant do anything by himself.  Myth may be evidence for Bronze Age travel into the Black Sea o Travel expanding territory eastwards  Folktale evidence:  The quest  Raised by magical animal  Traveling to magical lands completing impossible tasks  Marriage is the reward, but didn’t get kingship  When Jason comes back, his family has been killed and Pelias wont let him be king The Death of Pelias  Comes home, has revenge in a twisted way  Pelias rejects jason’s claim that he can be king o Media takes it into her hands to fix problem o Tricks Pelias’ daughters into killing him  Can renew Pelias, make him young again  Chop him up and put him in the pot, like Medina did to the lamb  Pretends she forgot something, but isn’t believed o Exiled even though Pelias out of the way Jason and Media in Corinth  Have 2 sons  Jason realized he will always be an outsider o Ditch Media and marries king’s daughter o Background of this story is the Peloponnesian war  Glauce is the daughter of the king Creon  Creon banishes media o Jason tries to reason with Medea that he is just leaving her because of sons  Medea burns king and daughter alive with a gift to Glauce  Medea agonizes and the only way to take True revenge on Jason is to remove all hope for the future o She kills their sons o Escapes on a chariot pulled by Dragons, gift from grandfather Helios the sungod  Other  Woman what every greek males fears  Foreigner  Part divine  Irrational  Dangerous  Jason will die inglorious death as an old man sitting on the Argo o Talking beam falls down and kills him  Medina will cure Aegeus (King of Athens) from his inability to have children o Will have children together o Will be founder of medians  Ie Persians  Greatest foreign enemy to the Athenians Medea: Sorceress and Wife  Greek withches, like circe and Medea often beautiful and seductive  Social comment on the state of women  Opening lines from Euripides, sympathetic description of what it means to be women  Kills kids, bad woman Calydonian Boar Hunt (just before Trojan war)  Aetolian myth  Heroes on the boar hunt are the same group of heroes as Argo  Meleager comes back from Argo, land being plagued by giant boar o Son of Oemeus and Althaea o When the log is consumed the child will die o Mother takes log and hides it  Artemis not honoured by Oemeus. Sends boars  Heroes come to hunt boar o Atalanta= woman she wants to be on the hunt o Boar brought down by Atalanta, Meleager, and Amphiaraus  Award of the pelt to Atalanta o Meleager wants to sleep with Atalanta  Uncles also on the hunt, they don’t think woman should get award on the hunt, let alone on the hunt at all o Prevertes the hunt by her presence  Meleager kills uncles, brothers of mother who is hiding log that decides when he dies o She burns it, murdered by mother because he shed kindred blood  Atalanta returns home, wants to stay unmarried o Race of Atalanta: will marry anyone who wins o Melanion wins the race with the help of Apples of the Hesperides o Excited about marriage, will consummate in temple of Zeus  VIOLATION, saw what happened to medusa and poseidon  Zeus turned them into lions  Infamous for how they have sex, and no customs about when and where. Fitting animals Heroic myth: hunt=sacrifice. Ritual initiation by hunting. By allowing Atalanta to come on the hunt, pervert hunter and society Designed for society to be protected by these people  Hunters/soldiers dangerous for society Theseus  Latecomer o When stories of him arrived o Not early like Heracles in Mycenaean age  Myths confused and pale o Doubling up of names o Story of family is confused  Becomes artificaial hero o Tyrants used Theseus to symbolise own advancements to Athens o PROPAGANDA KEY THEME FOR THESEUS  Myths modeled on Heracles  Unique hero: political o Athenian, used by Athenians over and over again for own political agendas Cecrops, Erichthonius, and the Daughters of Cecrops  Three different versions of the origins of Athenians o Descendant of Athena o From the earth o Descended from Cecrops  Institution of monogamous marriage, proper worship of gods  Erichthonius born when Hephaestus tried o have sex with Athena o Got junk on her leg, Athena wipes it and throws it to the ground o Man of wool and earth o Given in concealed basket to the daughters of cecrops (aglauros, herse, pandrosus)  Told not to look into he basket, but they do and go crazy, jumping off the acropolis to kill themselves  Reflects festival of dew carriers Festival of Dew Carriers  Yearly ritual of the Arrhephoria in late march  2 lived on the acropolis  wove a robe for statue of Athena  sent at night to aphrodites grove with baskets to return with a mysterious object o Associated with promise of new life o Womens initiation into sexual maturity Early legends of Athens In another myth , the daughters don’t die.  Hermes lusts after Herse and at first aglaurus agrees to act as a go between for gold  Athena afflicts something  Hermes turns Aglaurus into stone  Herse becomes pregnant with a con Cephalus o Cephalus marries Procris, a daughter of Erechthonius, soon givin way to jealousy  To test her loyalty to him, he approaches in disguise o Offers her more and more of a reward to sleep with him to see if she will ever give in  Eventually she will agree to sleep with him, proving she was always disloyal  Banashed to crete where Minos will lust after her  Cursed by his wife so he cannot have sex. Can only produce scorpions and spiders  Procris gices him an herbal remedy, and in thanks, minos gives her dog who catches everything, and spear that matches  Procris afraid of Minos’ wife, so she goes to Athens in disguise as a boy. Cephalus lusts after the boys gifts  She is convinced Cephalus is seeing his goddess lover Eos, a forest nymph of the breeze o She is jealous and spies on him  He is saying breeze, breeze.  Realises she is stupid and jumps out form bush, he throws spear that never misses, and killed by the gift she gives him  Cephalus forced into exile by Areopagus and flees tot Thebes o Only for murder trial  Thebes being plagued by fox that can never be caught  Zeus turns them to stone Procne and Tereys  Pandion is a son of Erichthonius and has 2 daughters and 2 sons  Pandion is a king of Athens  Tereus helps, Pandion gives Procne as a gift  P and T have son Itys Procne wants Philomela o Terys raped her, cut out her tongue, locked her in the woods o Philomela weaves and Procne understands story o Procne comes to hang out  Kill Itys, and serve him to his father. Then, they tell him he ate their son  All turned into birds  Aeteon for Birds The Begetting of Theseus  Aegeus king of Athens has no sons o He is a son of Pandeon, II and brother is Pallas o Pallas has 50 sons, Aegeus wants one  DelphiL do not open the wine skins until you return home o Doesn’t understand o Goes to Troezen, Pittheus understands prophesy o Sends daughter to Aethra o Poseidon also gets involved  Modelled after Heracles  Aethra goes to island after sleeping with Aegeus, and then gets raped by Poseidon o Reflecting myths of Heracles o Set up as a counter to Heracles  Aegeus hides a sword and a Sandal under a rock o Son will have to get them to be king  Theseus will have to face 6 labours (IMPORTANT) o Periphetes, the clubber  Son of Hephaestus who liked to bash people with clubs.  Theseus kills him o Sinis the pinebender  Giant, son of Poseidon  Grab trees, pull them down, attatch people and either fling, or get ripped apart  Attaches sinis to the tree and flings him o Cormmyonian sow  Lamest of labouts  Sow ravaging land  Theseus kills it o Sciron  Have people wash his feet on a clif  When they bent down, he would kick them off the ciff and be eaten by the giant turtle o Circyon  Crushes people to death during wrestling battle  Theseus crushes him o Procrustes  Liked symmetry. When guests would visit, he had a big bed, and a small bed  If the guest was big, he would be on the small bed, and cut off extras  If small, would stretch them out  Kills him by inflicting same punishment. Doesn’t say which bed first  **Theseus always reverses the tortures by the labourers Arrival in Athens  Medea is in Athens o Female antagonist o Aegeus under a spell by Medea, doesn’t recognise his son o Sends h
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