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Lecture 10

CLA204H1 - Lecture 10 - Artemis.docx

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Vichi Ciocani

CLA204H1 – Lecture 10 – Artemis Monday, January 28, 2013 The myth of Adonis - In Ovid, Metamorphoses - Paphos‘ son, Cinyras, has a daughter Myrrha - Myrrha becomes a myrrh tree from which Adonis is born - Adonis becomes Aphrodite‘s lover, is castrated and dies in a boar hunt – the short-lived flower anemone springs from his blood - A similar myth in the Phrygian (Asia Minor) tradition – Cybele and Attis. Also similar are the Assyrian/Babylonian myth of Ishtar/Inanna and her lover Tammuz - Adonis festival may have originated from the Near East o Controversial festival - All Greek myth = about Athenian monogamy, + misunderstanding of weddings, marriages, + failed marriages Adonia - Not very well appreciated in Athens. According to Plato only hetaerae (―prostitutes‖) participate in the Adonia o Festival didn’t have a good reputation, esp. in Athens (although it was relatively accepted)  Many authors speak despondence towards Adonia  Like Plato, they believe that Adonia = associated with mistresses = prostitutes - The ―gardens of Adonis‖ – ephemeral and sterile o Garden refers to ephemeral plants on rooftop gardens  Something short-lived + doesn’t produce offspring - But, a fragment of Sappho says: ―delicate Adonis is dying, Cytherea; what shall we do? Beat your breasts, maidens, and rend your garments‖ - Goddesses should be viewed as aspects of periods in women’s lives o Wedding – Aphrodite o Marriage state – Hera o One of these aspects can become stronger than others  Ex: nymphs don’t marry + follow Artemis  commit hubris (because neglecting other goddesses and periods they represent in woman’s life)  Result of disequilibrium Aphrodite and Anchises th - In the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite, 7 c. BC o Myth concerns the hero Aeneas - Aphrodite seduces the Trojan cowherd Anchises and gives birth to Aeneas, the hero who will survive the fall of Troy and will play an important role in the founding of Rome o Aeneas:  Son of Aphrodite + Anchises  Anchises = Trojan prince + like all other Trojan princes + shepherds, = very much loved by Aphrodite, who seduces him o Aphrodite disguises herself as a maiden, but reveals herself after intercourse  Anchises = scared because he knows that after having intercourse with a goddess, he will become impotent  One of survivors of Troy ( survives the Trojan War)  One of founders of Rome Artemis (Roman Diana) - Greek + Roman traditions = similar to each other - Name = probably near eastern - Originally a fertility goddess from Asia Minor - Often represented with wild animals (potnia theron = ―mistress of the animals‖), similarly to Cybele, a Phrygian mother-goddess - Ephesus, a city in Asia Minor, dedicated to Artemis o Ephesus – Asia Minor; place of worship - St. Paul in the Acts 19:28 mentions the Ephesians‘ veneration for Artemis: ―Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!‖ - Crown of Artemis – representation of her representing Ephesus - Wardrobe (top): breasts/testicles o Scholars – they represent jewellery of ember o Represents fertility - Wardrobe (bottom) – similar to Egyptian style - Artemis – once she enters Greece, she becomes goddess of virginity - Greeks thought that they were the only ones practicing monogamy while others practiced polygamy o Greek monogamy develops from Greek understanding of virginity - Artemis = one of 3 virgin goddesses (along with Hestia + Athena) o Hestia – belongs to the house o Athena – “…” city; protects the city o Artemis:  Goddess associated with wild + animals outside of city  In a way she opposes/is opposite of Athena  Associated with Cybele, mother-goddess (like Aphrodite + story of Adonis, which = concerned with castration)  Artemis = mistress of animals, which = same role that Cybele plays - Temple of Ephesus o Destroyed before Alexander the Great was born - Representation of Greek Artemis = different from Ephesus Artemis - Artemis: o Sometimes associated with “dance of the crane” o Iconography: tends to wear animal skin on her shoulders; wears bow + arrows (because she’s the goddess of hunting) o Often has bow and arrows in one of her hands - Always represented wearing short tunic (women’s dress that’s under the robe) in statues o Girdles – make skirt longer/shorter - Myth: sits on Zeus’ lap + asks him for eternal virginity, bows, arrows, + short tunic o Mixture of abstract + concrete things that she asks Zeus o Virginity – don’t expect it to be associated with skirts + robes Homeric Hymn to Artemis: 1-4, 9-18 (about 7 c. BC) ―I sing about Artemis of the golden arrows, chaste virgin of the noisy hunt, who delights in her shafts and strikes down the stag, the very own sister of Apollo of the golden sword.‖ - Artemis = goddess of hunt, virgin, arrows; sister of Apollo The birth of Apollo and Artemis - Born from the union between Leto and Zeus - Leto can only give birth on the island of Delos (―clear‖). On the nearby island Ortygia she had given birth to Apollo‘s twin sister, Artemis o Artemis + Apollo = twins o Leto travels around the world to deliver babies/give birth  Hera, jealous, didn
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