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Lecture 11

CLA204H1 - Lecture 11 - Apollo.docx

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Vichi Ciocani

1 CLA204H1 – Lecture 11 – Apollo Wednesday, January 30, 2013 1) Artemis and the Amazons 2) Apollo - NB – oppression present in monogamous relationships represents oppression of social world - Many theories use Greek myths fro supportive evidence - NB: o Artemis – virgin goddess 2 opposing models of womanhood + o Apollo – unfortunate god; subjected to love (?) masculinity that don’t interact appropriately - Hippolytus’ devotion to Artemis has close connection to the Amazons + his mother (who died before he = born) The Amazons - Located somewhere in Asia Minor o Geographic location depicts their symbolic location - Boundary creatures, hostile to marriage - Like the Centaurs, involved in the myths told about both Heracles and Theseus o All myths concerning Amazons = similar to Centaur myths  Tend to be represented together  Centaurs – half-men, half-horses; all males (in Greek myth); reject marriage, misuse/ill-treatment of opposite sex  Amazons – often depicted riding their horses o Mythical queen of Amazons: Hippolyta/Antiope o Imp myth they’re associated with = Heracles + Theseus - Hybrid in the sense of sharing both male and female attributes - Fight on the side of the Trojans against the Greeks and Achilles during the Trojan War - Penthesilea killed in combat by Achilles, who fell in love with her as she died (Thersites mocks Achilles’ passion and is killed) o Myth: Trojan War  Amazons side with Trojans  Queen = Penthesilea, who = killed by Achilles  Achilles falls in love with her just as he strikes + kills her o Thersites mocks him for falling in love with Amazon queen  Achilles kills him - Heracles to win the girdle of the Amazons’ queen (?Antiope, Hippolyta, Melanippe) o Myth: Heracles must go to Amazon to get Amazon’s girdle  NB – girdle symbolizes virginity  Heracles stealing girdle = cause of Amazonomachy - Theseus to abduct Antiope/Hippolyta and marry her  the Amazonomachy o Myth: Theseus abducts Hippolyta/Antiope + brings her to Athens  Antiope gives birth + eventually disappears (dies in war against Athenian people)  Reason for leaving: the Amazons fight Athenians after queen = abducted  the Amazonomachy o Battle between civilized + barbarians  Antiope = killed: either by Theseus/one of Amazon warriors (by accident?) o ∴ 2 diff causes of Amazonomachy - Confrontation between Greeks (civilized) + uncivilized (Amazons) - The Amazons worship Ares and Artemis o Amazons associated with Artemis  Reproduction – keep man only when they want to reproduces  keep girls, kill sons  Worship Ares (NB – he = placed outside of civilization (i.e., outside of Athens), in Thrace) 2 - o Meeting of eyes in vase paintings: figures = falling in love - o Antiope killed by Theseus  Her clothing: trousers, often associated with Amazons  Amazons often represented in clothing of Artemis, but then represented in Persian dresses (trousers) - o An Amazon depicted as Artemis - The Centaurs are sometimes said to originate from Apollo 3 o Centaurs (similarities between Centaurs + Amazons):  Their origin places them in association with Apollo  Disrespect weddings  Centaur drinks too much + tries to abduct bride  all Centaurs try to abduct women + sons  Centauromachy o Wedding = between Herephus (friend of Theseus) + Hippotamaya  Theseus = often symbol/representation of Amazons - The Amazons, like the Centaurs, a single-sex culture - The Amazonomachy and the Centauromachy often represented together (the shield of Athena Parthenos in Athens, temple of Apollo at Bassae, Arcadia) o Their representations can be found in, for ex., friezes  Seen on Greeks fighting with Amazons image  Battle against civilization Lecture 11 – Apollo (Roman Apollo) The birth of Apollo and Artemis - Born from union between Leto and Zeus - Leto can only give birth on the island of Delos (“clear”). On the nearby island Ortygia she had given birth to Apollo’s twin sister, Artemis o Leto isn’t allowed to give birth on land because of Hera o Leta gave birth on Delos, floating island on Aegean sea  Once Apollo = born, Delos becomes a fixed island + comes up above the surface  Delos – “shining”, “bright” (words associated with Apollo) o Apollo – the “shiny” one; god of sun (replaces Helios + his Titan father, Hyperion) - Artemis becomes goddess of childbirth, like Eileithyia o Artemis – helps Leto give birth, ∴ becomes goddess of childbirth  In oth
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