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Lecture 4

Mythology lecture 4.docx

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Lee Sawchuk

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The Olympians Zeus Apollo, Artemis (Leto) – Athena (Metis) Ares (Hera) Hermes (Maia) Dionysos (Semele)  Hera o Hephaestos  Poseidon  Demeter  Hades  Hestia (originally an Olympian)  Aphrodite (considered and Olympian as the daughter of Zeus) Nature of the Gods  Anthropomorphic o Idealized o Nagatives:  Passions and anger is stronger, weaknesses exaggerated o Omnipotence  ?  Under the influence of Zeus  Even Zeus sometimes appears to be in conflict with the fates o Omniscience  NO  Zeus appears to know anything sometimes, Apollo sometimes appear omniscient  only when speaking through the oracle for Zeus o Immortal but can be injured o Polytheistic and Monotheistic  Many gods  BUT dominance of Zeus’s reign  Sometimes rule is threatened and he needs help Zeus  Name comes from Di  shine or sky o Juputer  Diespiter (Latin)  Deus = god, dies = day o Conquests in Indo-Europe brought back a belief in a sky god o Eudia  fair weather (Greek) o Germanic Tiu -> where we get Tuesday o Indic Dyaus Pitar  sky god  Epithets o Filler names of gods to make syllables fit in poems o Zeus  Cloud-gatherer/hunter  Thunderer on high  Hurler of the thunderbolt  Father of gods and men  Home o Mountain tops (where clouds gather for storms)  Mt. Olympos  Mt. Ida  Mt. Lykaon o God of Sky  Thunderbolt and lightning  Zeus Kataibates  “Zeus Descending”  Irresistible strength  Bull  Eagle  Aegis (protective magic cloak  Loans to Athena often  "Hear me," said he, "gods and goddesses, that I may speak even as I am minded. Let none of you neither goddess nor god try to cross me, but obey me every one of you that I may bring this matter to an end. If I see anyone acting apart and helping either Trojans or Danaans, he shall be beaten beyond the limits of universal order [kosmos] ere he come back again to Olympus; or I will hurl him down into dark Tartaros far into the as far beneath Hades as heaven is high above the earth, that you maybronze, learn how much the mightiest I am among you. Try me and find out for yourselves. Hang me a golden chain from heaven, and lay hold of it all of you, gods and goddesses together - tug as you will, you will not drag Zeus the supreme counselor from heaven to earth; but were I to pull at it myself I should draw you up with earth and sea into the bargain, then would I bind the chain about some pinnacle of Olympus and leave you all dangling Iliad bk 8 firmament. So far am I above all others either of gods or men.“  During Trojan war gods wanted to take sides  Zeus threatens them because he wants them to remain neutral in the war and not help help children, particularly o God of Justice  Head of family  Zeus Hikesios  Zeus the guardian of supplicants  Protection of those who ask it  Zeus Horkios  Guardian of oaths  Zeus Xenos  Guardian of host and guest  Xenia  institutionalized guest-friendship  Reciprocity and generosity  Zeus + (<3) Themis (Law and Order)  Eunomia (lawfulness), Dike (Justice), Eirene (Peace)  Homeric Hymn 23: “…who holds constant counsel with Themis…” o Zeus’s Sluttiness  Uncontrollable sexual appetite  Hesiod: inappropriate but Hesiod spins it to make it look good because of the reproductive benefits  Immortal children:  Apollo and Artemis (Leto), Hermes (Maia), Persephone (Demeter), Athena (Metis), Ares, Hebe, Eileithyia (Hera)  Mortal Children:  Heracles (Alcmene), Perseus (Danae), Minos, Rhadamanthys, Sarpedon (Europe), Arcas (Callisto), Epaphos (Io)  Ovid (Metamorphoses)  Io  Callisto  Europa  Zeus falls in love at first sight, he transforms himself and tries to woo, they resist, he rapes, Hera finds out and punishes the women, eventual reconciliation between Hera and Zeus, reward for woman o Relationship to Fate  Fates in Theogony  Children of Nyx  Fates are daughters of Zeus and Themis  Homer:  Zeus has ability to change fate but chooses not to  “Most dread son of Cronos, what a word hast thou said! A man deliver again from dolorous death? Do as thou wilt; but be sure that we other gods assent not all thereto. And another thing will I tell thee, and do thou lay it to heart: if thou send Sarpedon living to his house, bethink thee lest hereafter some other god also be minded to send his own dear son away from the fierce conflict; for many there be fighting around the great city of Priam that are wrath....”e immortals, and among the gods wilt thou send dread  Hera stops Zeus from saving Sarpedon o Zeus Picture 1  Amphora of Zeus with beard, lightning, and eagle  Zeus always depicted as middle-aged  Prime time  Other side of vase is a giant and Zeus is about to throw thunderbolt o Picture 2  Bronze statue  Lightning bolt, bearded, middle-aged, athletic  450 BC o Picture 3  Zeus in bull form (Europa)  Myth exists before Ovid Hera  Hora  Seasons; Juno o Don’t know where she comes from o Maybe early on she was a mother goddess  Epithets o Cow/ox-eyed o White-armed (beauty)  Goddess of marriage and women’s fertility o But she and Zeus have a terrible marriage ?  She obeys Zeus and he does whatever he wants o Homeric Hymn 12  Praises for beauty and association for Zeus  Funeral Inscription o Jealousy o Children  With Zeus  Ares (War), Eileithyia (Childbirth), Hebe (Blooming youth  usually female)  Hephaistos (parthenogenesis)  In some myths he is son of Zeus too but not o “But Hera saw, and failed not to note how silver-footed Thetis, daughter of the old man of the sea, had taken counsel with him. Forthwith then she spoke to Zeus, son of Cronos, with mocking words: “Who of the gods, crafty one, has now again taken counsel with you? Always is it your pleasure to hold aloof from me, and to give judgments which you have pondered in secret, nor have you ever brought yourself with a ready heart to declare to me the matter which you devise.” In answer to her spoke the father of men and gods: “Hera, do not hope to know all my words: hard hear, this none other shall know before you, whether of gods or men; but what I to wish to devise apart from the gods, of all this do not in any way inquire nor ask.” In answer to him spoke the ox-eyed lady Hera: “Most dread son of Cronos, what a word you have said! Truly, in the past I have not been accustomed to inquire nor ask you, but at your ease you devise all things whatever you wish. But now I have sea, have beguiled you; for at early dawn she sat by you and clasped your knees.he To her, I think, you bowed your head in sure token that you will honour Achilles, and bring many to death beside the ships of the Achaeans.”  Sees Zeus talking to Thetis and nags him, he threatens her  Thetis was supplicating him (touched his knees  sometimes chin) to avenge Achilles. He can’t say no because he is the god of supplicants o Hera Picture 1  Classical period  Staff (royal scepter)  Veil, crown and cloak  White (women white men dark) o Picture 2  Zeus traps Hera to a throne  Dionysus gets him drunk and makes him free her o 3  Zeus and Hera reclining at Hebe’s marriage  Athena is beside Hera o 4  Sculpture from Temple of Hera in Sicily  550  “Wedding of Zeus and Hera”  Basically just stripping Poseidon  Posis  husband, lord o Connection to Demeter?  Epithets o Earth-Shaker o Tamer of Horses (sound associated with earthquakes) o Poseidon Hippios  God of the Sea o Trident o Chariot pulled by hippocampoi (half seahorses) o Pray to Poseidon to help them simply by not killing them  God of Earthquakes  Volatile, unpredictable o Does not like mortals  Children o Lots o Amphitrite (Nereid)  Triton o Polyphemus  Difference between Homer and Hesiod Cyclopes  P. is the monstrous kind  Unsuccessful as patron diety (not just Athens  olive trees vs. spring of salt water. He floods Athens) o Later build the Erectheum temple of Poseidon that houses olive tree and spring  Picture 1 o Sculpture o Looks similar to Zeus o Looks as though he may be holding a trident (but is could be Zeus because the item could be a thunderbolt)  Picture 2 o Fresco o With hippocampoi  3 o With Athena (helmet) o Black figure o Snake-trim of Aegis o Only know its Poseidon because it is labeled  4 o Triton o With woman (probably Amphitrite), winged goddess serving Athens  Athene o Ene  place name suffix o Probably named after the city  Epithets o Owl-eyed, grey eyed o Parthenos (virgin) o Athena Polia (goddess of the Polis) o Pallas Athene  Athena flays a giant named Pallas  OR Pallas was Triton’s daughter and they get into a fight and kills Pallas. She is upset and takes on the name in honour of her friend and makes a wooden statue of her friend and it is called the Palladium  Zeus tossed Palladium and it lands in Troy  Greeks cannot win while Troy has Palladium so they sneak in and steal it o Goddess of wisdom o Victory in war o Weaving and women’s skills  Panathenaea  carry peplos (robe) to the Parthenon as a gift o Pottery and Carpentry  The Argo  The Trojan Horse o Supporter of Heroes  Jason, Odysseus, Perseus, Heracles o Picture 1  Staring at stone (may be headstone of dead Athenians)  “Mourning Athena” o 2  Odysseus stealing the Palladium o 3  Sculptures sitting on West Pediment of the Parthenon  Athena and Poseidon in competition for Athens o 4  Reconstruction of the cult statue in the Parthenon  Made of wood but covered in ivory and gold Aphrodite  Foam  Aphros  Innana and Ishtar  Epithets o Cytherean; Cypris
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