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CLA204 5th class

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University of Toronto St. George
Betsy Bennett Purvis

May 24, 2013 CLA204 Classical Mythology Week 5 Greek Concepts of Death Demeter, Persephone, Hades Hades and Persephone Greeks though god of the dead were totally different set of gods cuz rituals were completely different, if sacrificing to gods of underworld would sacrifice black animals instead of white, ritual sacrifice would dig a pit and put altar down there instead of on a mountain. Hades gets to control the underworld; earth shared in common, Poseidon get sea, Zeus the sky. Bad luck to use the name “Hades” didn’t want to draw attention to them or associate them with underworld so euphemism “the unseen one” is what they called him or sometimes “Pluto” which literally meant wealth. Thanatos (Death) and Hypnos (Sleep) They were twin brother gods, when someone dies death and sleep attend them, vase painting literal on wither side of dead body. Hermes in the center, conveyor of the soul, his job is to take u from living to world of the dead its so difficult to cross that you need divine help cuz barrier is so strongly reinforced. They don’t cause death, when u worship death you’re not worshipping who will cause you to die, Greeks believed moment u die has to do with fate. Thanatos would be kind to you and help you to reach underworld if u worshiped him. Greeks didn’t think them as evil actively bring to harm you but just did important function at end of your life. Zeus thinks about preventing his son from dying, Hera convinces him not to says Do as you wish. But we other gods will not all agree with you. And I’ll tell you something else—make sure you remember it. If you send Sarpedon home alive, take care some other god does not desire to send his dear son from the killing zone. Around Priam’s great city, many men, sons of the immortals, are now fighting. You’ll enrage those gods and make them bitter. But if Sarpedon’s dear to you, if your heart feels pity for him, then let him be killed in a fierce combat at Patroclus’ hands, son of Menoetius. Zeus has power to go beyond powers of fate but Hera reminds him that everyone has a fated death, Zeus knows son is going to die but doesn’t intervene, if Zeus can save his son then other god would save there sons and the balance of things would be ruined. Prosthesis, Ekphora, Burial Cuz death was strange thing didn’t know what would happen on the other side, Greeks had a lot of diff ritual activities to make it easier for this transition to happen. Dead person hasn’t fully made transition to the dead and pp mourning also in liminal state not doing normal stuff their grieving, meant to help ppl get back to were they were suppose to be. Women screaming tearing out their hair. May 24, 2013 2 step the Ekphora the carrying out, take corpse to place were its going to be buried carried on a stretcher or wagon, eventually all Trojan heroes are burned. Offerings, pour wine libations, fruit, honey sometimes animal would be sacrificed ritual moment marked. Maybe once a year or more could repeat offerings, leave ribbons, flowers and cakes, tangible that shows you are facilitating transition of living to dead. Didn’t have to provide for an entire life for this person in the afterlife like the Egyptians. If you don’t provide proper rituals, then difficult, person could have poor life or be prevented from arriving in underworld, stuck in between. Odysseus goes down to the underworld to ask ghost of Tiresias how he could go back home. Odysseus doesn’t enter underworld but goes to the edge and sacrifices a black animal, all the ghosts come and want to drink pool of blood, he has conversation with Tiresias and figures out how he’s going to go home. He meats a sailor who wasn’t buried and the ghost begs Odysseus to perform death ritual for him, he goes back to island and buries the sailor. Illiad-Achilles has a beloved friend, he is so sad that he ceases to function doesn’t burry Patroclus, then in a dream he says he’s stuck cant cross over underworld then he feels guilty and theirs a giant funeral goes overboard cuz he feels guilty. Charon 1 when u die, if you come to the river styx this is were if u haven’t had proper burial you cant go across, has to hop in boat to cross. Charon spends life eternally rowing ppl across styx, others say you have to pay, origin burying ppl with money so they can pay the faerie man and get across. Cerberus If you were not actually dead and had crossed you’d encounter the 3 headed dog, guarded boundary to prevent wrong ppl from being in wrong place. –Cerbereus Rhadamanthys, Minos, Aeacus Then when they know your dead for sure, you encounter 3 judges, Rhadamanthy, Minos, and Aeacus, they were known for being fair, their reward if they spend eternity judging the souls of the dead. Most ppl who end up in underworld, life is bland; wandering around (limbo?) world is flat undifferentiated. Judges ignore average person if you are an amazing hero or just person noted by the gods then they send you to the Elysian Fields (Champs Elysees) –you had to be very far from average to make it in these fields, everyone is happy no violence. If you get to judges and average person even if you’re a murderer you don’t go to Tartarus, you’d have to commit an extreme crime then they would create a punishment just for you Tantalus Standing in pool of water every time Tantalus bends down to drink the water it recedes he also has ripe fruit in front of him but when he reaches for the fruit it recedes. Punished because > When gods visit him, Tantalus decides to test them to see if they are as godly as they are said to be, he cooks his own son and serves him to the gods, they know immediately, they are furious abt this, one goddess doesn’t May 24, 2013 notice and accidently takes a bite (Demeter) cuz she is in so much grief over her daughter (Persephone) that she doesn’t notice. Tantalus is sent to underworld Tartarus. Tantalus’ son (who was killed) is resurrected by the gods and is given an ivory shoulder since Demeter ate it. Ixion Ixion was punished for conceiving passion for Hera which is greatest ironies, Zeus is upset someone is showing Hera so much attention Zeus sends a fake cloud of Hera to Ixion, Ixion tries to have sex with the cloud and is send to the underworld for that. Tityus Punishment-perpetually having his liver plucked out by birds and there was a rock positioned above his head which could fall but never does. Crime >Tityus tried to rape Leto mother of Apollo and Artemis, while she was pregnant with the twins. This was completely heinous in the eyes of the gods and thus Tityus is punished. Danaids Punishment > The Danaids have to fill up cauldron, when they go to well to get water cauldron is empty again. Crime>Their were 50 Danaids, and had 50 cousins which say they will get married, sisters hatch a plot which is to kill their husbands on their wedding night 49 of them do this, except for one cuz she actually loves her husband/cousin. Women going against men who should have power. Sisyphus Punishment > Forever to be rolling a huge boulder up a hill, then boulder rolls down the hill when he almost reaches the top. Biggest crime > tries to transgress boundaries of life and death, when Sisyphus realizes he’s going to die tells wife not to perform any rituals for him. Sisyphus asks Persephone to take pity on him and let him go back to life and tell wife how to burry him and perform proper ritual Persephone grants him position to go back to world of living and refuses to go back to underworld again and this is unacceptable, doesn’t work, need to be kept separate he is dragged back down by gods of underworld and is punished. Katabasis Katabasis is the epic convention of the hero's trip into the underworld Odysseus does this and then he comes back up again only heroes are able to do this. He goes to very edge of underworld doesn’t cross border. Inius? In the course of his travels trying to figure out were his ppl are going to settle he goes to Kumi meets prophesy who says needs to go to underworld and talk to his father and then he’ll know exactly what he needs to do. Knows cant blindly just walk to Hades, so he plucks a golden branch off of a tree, It’s a sign that only ppl who are worthy are able to pull branch off the tree but cuz he’s a hero and exceptional kind of human kind of like the gods he gets permission to cross over to the underworld his father tells him his destiny and destiny of Rome which Virgin tells flattering things about Augustus. Reinforces that Hera and Zeus cant go to Tartarus but Hades could never live in Olympus 2 are completely separate only Hermes is able to cross boundary. May 24, 2013 Orpheus and Eurydice Orpheus goes to underworld to rescue his wife Eurydice who after getting married
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