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Lecture 3

CLA204 Lecture 3 .pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Carter

Creation of Man andWoman -opposites -hierarchy ex.gods and humans,men and women Ovid's Creation of Man ('Metamorphoses') -hesiod doesn't tell us 100% how he thinks humans were created -however ovid says in 'Metapmorphoses' [before 8 CE]:creation of man was the work of prometheus who made man out of mud -process of the generation of the human race not described in a lot of detail -prometheus' name means foresight -prometheus=titan,son of Iapetus;during the titanomachy (battle of titans vs. olympians),prometheus actually took the side of the olympians so he is KIND of on zeus' good side,but he does get on zeus' bad side b/c of his fondness for the human race The First Sacrifice at Mecone -Aetiology [story of 'Works and Days',Hesiod ca. 700 BCE] -describes the punishment of humans by zeus [Hesiod's acount] -works and days=didactic poem,teaches you a lesson (hesiod teaches his own brother about justice over a land dispute) -in the context of this family conflict,hesiod also gives a lot of advice to his brother about how to be a good farmer,good person,how to treat the gods,etc. -aetiology of sacrifice:describes how the rules of sacrifice came to be -gods and mortals gather together to discuss the rules of sacrifice -prometheus decides to trick zeus;he is given the role of dividing up the animals for consumption and he takes the good edible parts of animals and conceals them inside the awful,internal organs & he took the inedible parts (e.x.teeth and bones) and wraps them in fat (looks delicious) -zeus knew he was being tricked but he chose to be deceived in order to be able to punish humans and prometheus;in being deceived,any punishment zeus chose would be justifiable -he punished humans by taking away their fire (this was prior to hermes figuring out how to make fire);fire was crucial for human civilization -since prometheus loved humans so much,he decided to get fire back on their behalf and carried it in a stalk of fennel (fennel is apparently fire-resistant) -this further angers zeus and decides to punish them again -mortals are punished by being given women and prometheus is punished by being taken into the mountains and is chained to a rock face -every day,an eagle,representing zeus comes to peck out his liver and his liver grows back overnight as he is immortal,and the cycle repeats -this is how the relationship between zeus and mortals is established;he teaches mortals that life is full of suffering and hardships;bleak sense of the world (demonstrated by the punishments of retrieval of fire and giving women) -in a sacrifice,there are three parts to it:human (sacrificer),gods (recipient) and animals (sacrifice) which establishes the role of gods ruling over humans -animals are below humans which are below gods on this hierarchy -greeks were pessimistic and believed that they had the worst of it (they were aware that they lives are labour-intensive and full of suffering,whereas animals are carefree and didn't know they are being sacrificed) the punishment of man: CREATION OFWOMAN Creation of Pandora -back to hesiod's 'Works and Days',men were given women as punishment -pandora=first woman,an entirely separate species from man -hephaestus makes pandora out of water and clay,gives her strength and beauty and she is given various gifts by the gods -pandora's name means "all gifts" -athena gives her womanly skills,Aphrodite makes her desirable and desirous, hermes gives her the soul of a bitch (deceit,cunning) -pandora is a beautiful vessel for bad qualities on the inside -> this kind of thinking informs the ways greeks thought about women -epimetheus (his name means hindsight),the brother is prometheus,is told by prometheus not to accept gifts from zeus (prometheus has foresight and can see what is about to happen) -however,when zeus present pandora to epimetheus,epimetheus can't resist her and accepts her,forgetting prometheus' warning -pandora has a dowry,the jar,which unleashes all the wickedness in the world once she opens it (although she has been told not to open it) -the only thing left in the jar was hope -thus women are a cause of suffering -hesiod:women are consumers who give nothing in return-> simile:women are like bees (male bees collect pollen while females relax on honeycombs) -> however women do give men children -hesiod:women-> catch 22:men who don't have women cannot have children and thus have nobody to take care of them in old age,however with a woman and children brings the possibility of hardship -pandora's jar symbolizes the uterus;pandora herself is a lot like the jar (is evil and brings evil to the world) -hope stuck in the jar can be represented by child in the womb of women -women are solely defined by the role in producing children --- -greeks believe that they came at the long line of degeneration,a series of ages associated with different metals (in the beginning,there was a paradise where everything was perfect,and then things degraded to the current state) Stages of the Metals -ovid cares more about technology,progress (believed that things were better when there were no ships,no metal-mining,better when there was no agriculture;progress=worsening of human condition) Stages: -Gold:time of cronos,beauty,plentiful,isolated,peaceful, when people die,they just go to sleep • hesiod:when people died,zeus covered them with earth, no conflict,no aging,no sadness,no work • ovid:same things but added that there were no trials/ Gold judgment/travels by sea/harsh weather conditions -Silver:time of zeus,sacrilege,impiety (no sacrifices to gods),cunning,more work involved • hesiod:people spend 100 years being children,are adults for a few years then die.this age comes to an end when people fail to make sacrifices to the god and thus zeus punishes them • ovid:focuses on how there is more work to do -Bronze:harsh,savage • hesiod:men were made from ash trees;bronze men are engaged in war so often that there is no time for agriculture (they become nomadic).this
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