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CLA204H1 - November 25

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University of Toronto St. George
Lee Sawchuk

CLA204: Introduction to Classical Mythology The Trojan War and The End of the Trojans The Origins of the Trojan War - Marriage of Peleus and Thetis - big deal---marriage between mortal and immortal - Eris (Strife) is not invited but shows up anyways - she throws an apple in that says "for the most beautiful goddess" - Hera, Aphrodite and another goddess (Athena) all want it - they find a mediator to judge who gets the apple ***Image: Peleus holding Thetis - stopping her from shapeshifting - she is holding animals to represent all the forms she takes - the judgement of Paris - in most versions he is just a shepherd, not recognized in Troy - Hermes sometimes judges in some myths - bribes - Hera: dominion all over the world - Athena: military power and genius - Aphrodite: the most beautiful woman in the world - i.e. Helen - chooses Aphrodite - collects his new bride - sent on an embassy to Sparta - Menelaus welcomes him to his home - Menelaus goes to Crete - Helen and Paris fall in love and run off to Troy - with as much gold as they could carry - in some versions Aphrodite makes her fall in love; in others she just does - Menelaus upset, so they prepare for war Another Version of Origin of the War • Acusilaus 39 – 6th c bce mythographer – Oracle • Anchises’ descendants will rule Trojans after Priam’s – Aphrodite + Anchises -> Aeneas – Aphrodite plots downfall of Priam’s line because she knows about the Oracle - makes Helen fall in love with Paris so that they will run away to Troy and a war will begin, allowing her offspring to rule • Pretends to help the Trojans so they don't give up - they have to keep going until Priam's children are killed ***Image: Judgement of Paris - sitting in a throne with a staff, between two pillars - symbolize that he has been recognized as the prince of Troy - lyre could show that he once was a shepherd - Hermes beside him in typical outfit - three goddesses beside - Aphrodite first; holding Eros; veiled - Athena next; holding a helmet out; wearing aegis and holding spear - beside her is Hera; wearing a crown; holding a scepter and offering a miniature lion (sign of royalty) ***Image: very similar to previous one - same scene - typical Hermes - Paris sitting on a rock, no staff or scepter, surrounded by sheep and holding lyre - him as a shepherd - three goddesses wearing normal things Preparations for War • Gathering the troops – Oath of Tyndareus invoked (all suitors must help) - Agamemnon is the leader – Conscription of Odysseus (he did swear the oath, but later withdrew from the competition) • Odysseus’ “madness” - fakes it because he doesn't want to go - sews his own field with salt • Palamedes thinks that Odysseus is faking it - puts the newborn baby in front of the plow - Odysseus saves his child and therefore must go to war - they are never friends after this; Odysseus gets Palamedes killed – Conscription of Achilles (greatest fighter) - didn't swear the oath but he likes to fight - Oracle: Thetis and Peleus will have a child; it will be better than Peleus • Immortality – Thetis puts him in fire to burn away his mortal half » Peleus interrupts, so part of him is not immortal – OR: Thetis dips him into river Styx (makes him invulnerable) - only the ankle is vulnerable because she holds him there - Thetis doesn't want him to go to war, because she knows that if he goes he will die • Achilles is hidden by his mother on Scyros – Dressed as a girl in a women's academy - Greeks go looking for him; can't tell which he is – Odysseus’ trick - they lay out various gifts in front of the women - all things that would stereotypically attract women - they also put a sword and a shield; Achilles grabs these - in another story he is sent away before he hears about the war (by Thetis) - don't know exactly where Troy is • The Mysian Expedition – The False Troy - invade because they think it is Troy - realize that it isn't Troy and go home (after killing a king) • The Greeks at Aulis - the king eventually points them where to go – Bad winds - can't sail • Greeks stuck at Aulis • Calchas (prophet): Artemis upset with Agamemnon (he killed one of her special deer) – Sacrifice of Iphigenia (Agamemnon's daughter) to appease Artemis • Agamemnon's and Clytemnestra’s daughter - tell her that she is going to marry Achilles - she is sacrificed - in some versions she is replaced with a deer by Artemis right before she is killed • Iphigenia among the Taurians (barbarians) – Good winds • Greeks head to Troy The Trojan War • 10 year war – The Epic Cycle--refers to the whole story of the war; poems that talk about it • The involvement of the gods (VERY involved; far more prevalent than in other myths) – Proclus The Cypria • Zeus makes plans with Themis for Trojan War (how it will unfold) – Paris punished? Zeus wanted
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