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University of Toronto St. George
A Keith

Cla204 NotesLecture 1Mthos ancient Greek authoritative speech a word speech or tale the story or plot of a narrativeMyth English a traditional story of collective social importance stories concerned with Gods and mortalsUsually have settingseither a long time ago but in actual places eg Rome Athens etc or outside a time and away from human existence eg Eden Mt Olympus land of the deadMythologymthos storylogos accountthe study of mythMyth can be circulated in a number of ways eg orally Hesiod Homer through literature Ovid Euripidies artistic media dance versions musical versionsStory tellers can be real like Homer and Hesiod or mythical OrpheusWritten stories usually have a known author or they can be anonymousOvid Roman 4317 an aristocrat who was highly educated Metamorphoses was his great masterpiece 8 which he was writing when he was banished from Rome by Augustus Ovids sources for the Metamorphoses a compendium of myth is all of the classical tradition or all the authors who wrote about myths before himThe myths contained are about mythical transformations usually people into other forms eg Gods animals etcnot reversible or Gods into other things reversibleApotheosisto become a god catasterismtransformation into a starApollodorusLibrarysystematizes Greek mythology by cataloguing myth in proseHyginushandbook of myth from Greek sources written in LatinHesiod and Ovid have different attitudes towards the Gods and they show the clash of the divine and mortals differentlytheodicy divine justiceMythology is not synonymous with myth mythology is the account or the study of myth although it is often used interchangeablyDivine Mythsabout the gods anthropomorphic like humans forms and personalities vs personifications as virtues eg victory often etiological explaining the causeorigin of why something happened These types of myths usually occur outside of human chronologymortals did not exist Etiological myths can be seen as analogous to science to our modern worldHeroic MythLegendabout heroes like Achilles Menelaus Hector Daedalus Jason Theseus analogous to history these tell us about what happened in human history and therefore take place with humans present Main characters are heroes extraordinary humansFolktalesabout ordinary folk contains magic moral frameworkreversalordinary people are recognized as having a talent or having accomplished a significant achievement which provides a happy ending good over evilthere are different motifs like going on a quest the helper magical item etcGreece and romepeninsulas in the Mediterranean Sea therefore sea travel is common and trade in conducted in this wayIts a dry mountaninoushilly dry landGreeceregions include Attica Athenscapital Theseus Boeotia Thebes is capital Oedipus Peloponnese connected by the isthmusconnects mainland Greece and the Peloponnese Corinth located heretrading led to the building of coloniesOld Stone AgeGreece already occupied but not many material remains from these original occupants paleolithic before 6000 BCENew Stone Agematerial remains of houses found graves etc Neolithic 60003000 BCEBronze Age 30001150 BCEsplit into 3 sub ages Early Middle and Late many more material remains found from this periodMinoan Culture 22001400 BCEpalaces double axe labrys King Minos Labyrinth fertility goddess worshipped the bulllocated on CreteMycenean period 16001150 BCEMycenae Pylos Thebes associated with Linear B tablets writing and many Greek myths therefore probably took shape during this periodend of the period resulted in loss of Linear B tabletsDark Ages 1150800 BCEInvasion of the Dorians Athens resisted Euboea started sending people westward setting up Aeolis and Ionia Advent of written language and this westward migration helped kick off the Archaic periodArchaic Age 800480 BCEtrade revived around Mediterranean invention of the Greek Alphabet citystate polis commerce coinage class stratification becomes prevalent and heavy reliance on slaves occurs RISE OF PERSIAlooking to expand into Greece coalition of polies defeat the Persians at Marathon 490 and then Salamis 480Classical Age 480323 BCEPeleponnesian wars fought between Athens and SpartaSparta defeats Athens and her allies Golden age of Greece and at its centre was Athens new powers rise such as Thebes Corinth and finally MacedonHellenistic Age 32330 BCEage ushered in by death of Alexander the Great and the division of his empire among his chosen heirs Spread of Greek culture to Eastern Mediterranean rise of Rome during this period tooRome takes over Carthage Greece Asian MinorAge ends with the death of Cleopatra after battle of Actium between Egypt and Romeushered in Roman periodkeep in mind that they loved Greek culture and imported art and literature and thus preserve Greek cultureBabylonian Enuma Elish when on highMarduck order vs Tiamat chaosMarduck wins and splits Tiamat into 2 making heaven and earthEgypt and Israelbegins with watery chaos female goddess Nun then order earth animals and humansTheoganyopens with proemhymn to the Muses associated with Mt Helicon where Hesiod has his epiphany it is customary for an oral poet to begin his poem in such a way after this he begins with his cosmogony birth of the worldgenealogy of nature and the theogany birth of the godsgenealogy of deities along with the succession mythTitanomachyafter Zeus banishes Kronos he must battle the Titans and he prevails
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