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Lecture 6

CLA204H1F Lecture 6

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Jarrett Welsh

CLA204H1F L6; Oct. 18, 2012 City of Tyre, in Phoenicia (eastern Mediterranean, south of One aspect of legends is the Hero Syria): Legends & Myth often overlap Agenor (king) Cadmus, Europa, (Kilix, Phoinix, Thasos) o Gods being anthropomorphic important for interacting Almost bordering on mythical territory w world Thebes Europa & the Bull Red-figure Bell krater Europa running alongside Zeus The Berlin Painter Ca. 490 BC Tarquinia, Museo Nazionale RC 7456 Europa shown running beside bull in early representations Europa & Zeus Abducted by or going along willingly w bull Is it a myth or a legend? Metope from Temple C, Selinous, Sicily Ca. 560 BC o Motivated by Zeus but in bg of legends of Thebes Palermo, Museo Antonio Salinas o Connected w human past of the city Ovids short version Zeus abducts Europa by deceiving her Very beautiful, naturally attracted Zeus attention & lust Heroes Convinces E he isnt a scary bull, fools her into trusting him Divine parent(?), miraculous birth (ex. Heracles); grand physical stature Leads her to the water away from dry land Ovid has Z trick her step by step (embellishment) The Heros Quest: pattern of adventures Carries her to Crete o Impossible tasks performed while under the power of an enemy (traditional word) / opponent Agenon distressed due to her disappearance Sent sons to find her, unallowed to rest o Enticing but dangerous woman often mortal or part of o Sounds impossible human narrative, sometimes a sorceress outside of human grouping Phoenix travelled a few miles from Tyre before he gave up founds a new settlement gives name to Phonitia o Help from gods, spirits, magical objects (ex. Cadmus) o Due to religious practice, couldnt return home o Inevitable success o Return home, atonement for any crimes; putting Kilix gave his name to Cillicia everything back together 3 brother goes even farther north, gets to an island northwest Thassos northern Aegean sea near Greece o Rewards flourish forever Outside range of legend, into religion onto par w Rationalizations of the names of places, connecting them w gods Tyre Cadmus went farthest of the 4, got to Thebes, but no success Thebes Migration from East to West Leading city of Boeotian plain (southern Boeotia) Europa in Greek: originally applied to island of Crete, Europe such as the Greeks knew it o Wasteland o Sits on a ridge that goes through centre of ocean plain o Finding a new land, establishing a new home while o Surrounded by mountains searching for this distant place named Europa o Helps make sense of details in story local view of world & ones own past, citys history o Even tho the brothers failed, had modest success in Goes to what will be Thebes establishing places Cadmus has been helped, so now owes the gods a favour Cadmus: more success than his siblings o Sacrifices the cow since its been sent to him (by Athena) This image: she goes along willingly o Needs water for the sacrifice, sends friends to a nearby spring guarded by a dragon killed the less-heroic o Cadmus gets tired of waiting, goes & kills the dragon Not perfect, but idea of a task o Travelling to end of world on impossible task o Dangerous & enticing woman Opythia (not perfect fulfillment) o But looking for Europa might not be, in the end, the heros impossible task o Task = foundation of a new city Athena tells him to take the teeth of the dragon (magical object) & scatter them in the fields around the city o Goddess helps out the hero o armed warriors spring out of earth from where teeth thrown o Most of the men kill each other, 5 left: Spartoi ppl sewn into the fields became the founders, or first ancestors, of noble Theban families in history So know the city wont collapse since have good stock of noble families Cant return home because he doesnt have Europa, but retires & has a family in Thebes; reigns in Thebes for the rest of his life after making amends for killing the dragon (sacred to Ares), has daughters Flourishes great civilizer, law-giver hallmarks of culture according to the Greeks At end: Goes off into sunset to distant place at end of Greek world north-west Stories fits patterns yet falls short (ex. Opythia) Older hero behind bg of Theban legends, generations of kings Three Big Ideas No pure example of a Greek hero 1- Heroic qualities, inside or outside a quest o The failures/failings/deficiencies/flaws of a hero? o Most heroes have a flaw that make them less than perfect o Often less-than-perfect personality-wise 2 - The concept of miasma o Stain, defilement Not strictly wicknedess itself Impurity that follows because of a crime that has been done Can be cleansed of it (stain) but can never be safe from it (no vaccine), can get it all over again f you do something bad o The taint of guilt, arising esp from murder o Contagious families, cities Disease metaphor
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