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Lecture 10

Antiquity Lecture 10.docx

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Regina Hoeschele

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 Exam: Essay Topic (3) Broad questions that you should leave about an hour for  Dialogue: Imagine a dialogue between certain ancient people about a certain topic  Know mixture of Greek and Egyptian marriages Antiquity Lecture 10 Greek Egyptian Queens th st Moving between the 3/4 C BC to the 1 Hellenistic age: 323 BC, Alexander the Great at the Battle of Issus (333BC). He dies at a young age without having a male heir. He has a half brother who is disabled so he wouldn’t be fit to rule, so there is no direct family member that could be his successor. This led to a decade where the empire is divided: “Division of Alexander’s Empire among the Diadochs of Alexander’s successors”  Eventually 3 Hellenistic dynasties are established, and in the year 306BC, they start thinking of themselves as kings: o EGYPT = PTOLEMIES o NEAR EAST = SELEUCIDES o MACEDON = ANTIGONIDS The tree diagram (on power point): Ptolmey I Soter (323-283BC) “The Savior” Ptolmey II Philadelphus “Sibling Loving” Ptolmey III Euergetes “Guy who does Good Deeds” In Alexandria 3 C BC: *Museion Library (place of the muses) was established, but it was a place that held books instead of artwork. And in this museion there were many scholars that started collecting literatures – THE BEGINNING OF LITERARY SCHOLARSHIP 1) Doter: Founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty (ruled from 323-283 BC). He was deified together with his wife Berenike (defined as Gods). They were Greeks who take over the role of pharaohs, and this pair was venerated as the savior gods. He had 2 children with the Berenike, and a son from his first marriage before he met Berenike, named Ptolemaios Keraunos. Ptolemy and Bernike were portrayed as a devoted loving couple (the woman he left his wife for because they fell in love) *Basileus: means King Theocritus: bucolic or pastirao poet, his collection of poems also contained poems without a bucolic theme.  *PANEGAYRIC: A song of praise  Berenike poem on power point: she is associated with Aphrodite, and the quality singled out as a divine quality is that she was a faithful wife.  Berenike and Ptolemy had a son together, Ptolemy II, who ruled from 283-246 The plot gets complicated! He is married to Arsinoe, and has a son name Ptolemy III. Through some complicated events, Arsinoe II (Ptolmey II’s sister) gets married to her full brother, Ptolmey II… IT’S A SIBLING-LOVING MARRIAGE (they were worshiped as Theoi.) This incest isn’t allowed in Greek culture; half siblings could marry as long as they didn’t share the same mother. In Egypt, sibling marriage is accepted. Arsinoe I is deified after her death in 270 BC; she is also associated with Aphrodite and she becomes a companion of all the Gods. We have a pattern of deification of Hellenistic Queens after their death, and even looked at as gods during their lifetime Ptolmey III takes over from his father and rules 246-222BC, and marries Berenike II. He passes her off as a sister, but she’s only his cousin, related through their grandmother. LOCH OF BERENIKE POEM: Historical background: Ptolmey III goes to the 3 Syrian war in order to help his sister who was married to a king there who died. She needed help because the king’s ex wife was trying to make her own children the successors. Berenike II promises to dedicate a loch of her hair if her husband returns safe from the war, and he does. She cuts off a loch of her hair but it disappears, and then was discovered as a new constellation in the sky by an astronomer who said that it was the loch *CATASTERISM (turning of a person/object into a star.) Callimachus: very important Hellenistic poet who wrote a work called *AITIA: a book about origins the origins of things. Problem is the Aitia was only preserved in fragments. The Loch of Berenike text was translated by Catulus (we’ve seen him in the poem of suffer). For a very long time, it was very important for scholars to reconstruct Greek original into Latin.  The loch has been dedicated because Ptolmey III came back safely from a war, and it is turned into a constellation. The loch becomes mad because it doesn’t want to live with the stars. In this case, we have an offering that’s complaining about how it was dedicated (this is unusual, they’re usually grateful).  The speaker is the loch, it begins by talking about Conan (astronomer) and she looks back at how she became to be in the heavens, always lamenting  It witnesses the missing of Ptolmey III, but doesn’t know if Berenike misses him as a husband or as a brother. Then she recalls that Berenike, who was the daughter of Magas, was promised to Ptolmey III but when father died her mother wanted her to marry a man named Demetrius. Demetrius comes to the court and has an affair with her mother, so Berenike has him assassinated and is then able to marry Ptolmey III. Cleopatra VII Background story: committed suicide at the age of 39 and she was the daughter of Auletes. Cleopatra becomes queen with her brother, Ptolemy 1, after her father’s death. Ptolemy 13 becomes the sole ruler and Cleopatra has to go into exile. Cleopatra becomes the lover of Julius Caesar and give birth to Caesarion, he dies and she then becomes the lover of Marc Antony and has 3 children. This ends in another civil war between Octavion and Mark Antony. Mark Antony is defeated, and Cleopatra kills herself because she doesn’t want to be brought into Rome after the victory of Octavion. Her life is defined because of the erotic entanglement of 2 of the most prominent men in the world. This aspect is the most emphasized when you think of her:
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