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Lecture 5

Antiquity Lecture 5.docx

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Regina Hoeschele

Figures: Average age of Life Expectancy in Classical Greece:  Man: about 45 years  Woman: younger, most women died in child birth, about 35 years  People died a lot younger at this age, so had a huge effect on marriage Infant Mortality:  30-40% die in first year  Half of all children would die before 10  In Rome, 25% died before age one, 50% before 10  Infants could be exposed at birth  Not illegal to kill your baby  If you gave birth to a child, and you felt like it looked sick or you had too many children, you could leave it in the wilderness and let it die, or leave it somewhere it could be found and taken care of  Not a crime in antiquity  Accepted but not common  Text 249, a letter from ancient Egypt: husband writes - If exposure was practiced, more common with female babies: apparently females just cost you money: feed, grow them up, marry them off, give them a dowry - Want male offspring - Aristotle: there should be a law forbidding to bring up disabled children - High mortality rate in women in child baring age: 15-59 years  Girl in ancient Greece, and survived, but quite often they were less well nourished than boys. So possible reason as death was that they didn’t get the same food.  Educated and trained in skills that prepare you to be a good wife: cooking, textile work, working with wool, how to run a household (depends on class)  Greece: Illiteracy more wide spread in females  Rome: upper class might be educated Menstruation (13-15):  Once you start menstruating, you can bare children and therefore be married off. Girls mature face, and men take longer because they have to attend school and get a lot of education  Greece + Rome: women = never a legal adult, always under the guardianship of the male  Sparta: recommended that girls be at least 18 before you get married  AUGUSTUS: granted freedom to citizenship if you had 3 children, if you were a free women you had to have 4 children  If your husband/father dies you need another male to be your gaurdian OIKOS (HOUSE, which is like a miniature estate) + POLIS: *Oiskos: house can only run if run well, WOMEN JOB IMP *PolusL  Zenofonz (4 C writer)  Figure of Socrates (Greek philosopher)  Met him in the Symposium of Plato + idea of Pederasty  Never wrote anything down, usually get is teachers from other writers Text 267: abstract of household management: tells us about encounter with a man of Excomacos, who tells Socrates who he trained his 14 year old wife to manage his estate. He was about to introduce her to duties of a wife, and he is able to mold her 718: Exco talks about distribution of chores between male and females, and Gods created them in a way that would be complementary to each other - Yolk = + *Yolk : chariot drawn by oxen, the wood that bines oxen together - Used to describe marriage - (+) Mate joining, male and female or (-) connotation (baring marriage) - Idea: why is there marriage? CAUSE THERE HAVTA BE CHILDREN - Important for when provisions are made and brought into the home, someone takes care of them - Home needed for making of wool, for taking care of children - Indoor supervision = women tasks - Outdoor = men tasks DIVIDES CHORES INTO OUTDOOR WORK + INDOOR, AND WOMEN MOSTLY INSIDE AND TAKING CARE OF HOUSEHOLD, MALES GO OUT FOR BUSINESS/WAR, INDOOR ACTIVITIES ARE AS ESSENTIAL, BUT HE JUSTIFIES THE DIVISION OF LABOR BY PHYSICAL APPROPRIATENESS: MADE MAN TOUGH, WOMEN SOFTER, AND SHE LOVES BABIES MORE (women = better fitted for physical activities that are indoor) GUY IS COURAGEOUS SO DEFENDS THE HOME, WOMEN IS MORE WORRIED. YOLK IS MUTUALLY BENEFICIAL BECAUSE WHAT ONE LACKS THE OTHER HAS = (+) MARRIAGE 273: how she should think of herself as a leader bee. A woman is in charge of managing all components of the household: guarding children, etc “Weaving the wax” = textile activity - NICE WAY OF LOOKING AT FEMALE JOB… positive portrayal Ancient Athens: Strict Sexual Segregation: Separate women’s quarters, in a diff part of the house where males would mingle, if there was a male party (symposium) wife couldn’t be in it , if there were females that participated they were musicians, low life women  Richer your family, the more confined you were as a women. If you had slaves, they would go get what you needed, so upper class girls only went out for religious duties.  Live a secluded life  Upper class don’t have many physical activities  Lower class, women had to contribute to a households income by doing work outside: market, washer, midwives, artist, wool works, wet nurses… having an actual profession was frowned upon  Women could remarry if still in a child baring age  High chance of guy dying before wife, because he marries younger 14 year olds, and he only lives until 45 so he dies before her  No romantic ideal attached to marriage: ECONOMICAL CONTRACT  ROME: *UNIVRA: women who only married once  *PATERFAMILIARS :head of the household, aka male, the father of the family. A father had full power over his children, until his death, EVEN if they were adults, and were married with their own children. They’d still be under authority of paterfamilias. AWKZZZZ Authority of his adult children, and their offspring … not found in Athens  IN ATHENS, women always had a guardian: *KYRYOS : starts off as father, and then later on to her husband. When she was married, she would belong to husband Talked about: Female chores Married women Women in lower classes had various professions SLAVES (ROME + GREECE): Female slave, your master could sleep with you any time. This is not adultery. Why is it fine for guy to sleep with his slave, if he is married and has a wife with children, his children is his heir, and the slaves have no claim on inheritance DOWRY (ROME + GREECE): Forms of property given to women when married to ensure her financial security… If there were a divorce, then dowry would be returned to the father. IN SPARTAAAAAA, things were supah dupah diffff - Warrior nation: militaristic society - Women are more empowered - Idea: A boy aged by mother until age of 7, then you left home and were trained… strict separation from household from which you were born - Not strong attachment to home - Children more responsibility of the society than the household - Continued until you were 30, you’d married in your 20s, so if you were married you couldn’t live with your wife/children until 30 - Girls could be seen doing physical exercise: possibly done in nude - WIFE SHARING (weird idea): it was okay to give your wife to your brother or your friend, they could all have sex with her and have children with her. - Women can have sexual relationships with other males - NOT ADULTARY - Wife sharing concept: used woman’s fertility to produce as many children as they could, and get lots of warriors, but having a lot of children was hard to divide property into – OTHER CHILDREN AMONG OTHER MEN = EASIER TO DIVIDE PROPERTY - - Marriage: Girl should be at least 18, and guys in mid 20s, so there is a smaller age difference - Wedding ceremony consisted of women lying in bed with a male cloak and guy would sneak in Ancient Athens, every women had to have kyryos, always under guardianship - marriage is a transfer of guardianship from father to husband - Athens is not religious - Adultery is an issue, but not because your violating a sacred bond, but because your violating property (wife) - HOW TO GET MARRIED? - 1) ENGYE: betrothal, an oral contract. - Father “I pledge ______ in legitimacy of having children” Man “I pledge”, woman not consulted - Father had to see if it was a suitable match - A women is a passive object - Dowry usually given at this stage: used to ensure likelihood of the woman - A kind of pre-death inheritance (part of father’s fortune would go to women… couldn’t inherit because they couldn’t have property, so husband had to handle. - If there was a divorced, man had to give back dowry - If couldn’t pay back, had to pay 18% interest every year - Couple has only female and no male children – problem with inheritance, can adopt a son *EPIKLEROS:
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