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Lecture 6

Antiquity Lecture 6.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Regina Hoeschele

Antiquity Lecture 6 MIDTERM QUESTIONS Question 1: Momento Mori: a latin saying meaning remember that you will die and is supposed to remind you to enjoy tour life when you can Misogeny: hatred of women Epitilalium: wedding song Invective: attack a poem that is obscene and aggressive Econium: song of appraise Agamathophilia – love of statues Apotrapaic: wards off evil Question 4: Math of Pandora Context: the name of Hesiet, this myth is told twice in hesiet in a deductive context. Zeus has the gods fashion a creature name Pandora, sends to epimethius and doesn’t realize how dangerous this woman is. She has with her a jar that contains all the evils of the world. She’s asked by the gods to open the jar, and all of the evils of the world comes out and the only thing that stays inside is hope Question 5: Helen Relevant ancient sources (more than 1 for both sides) you can talk about the guilt, Horac, Elders in the Illiad that blame her for war Question 6: Pederastic relationship – elder lover Should’ve mentioned that in gender discourse, male needs to be active and penetrating. Compare to modern forms of homosexuality: something that doesn’t occur between a teenage boy and elder male, but an adult man can also be homosexual, but not male’s who are adolescence aren’t defined as females Question 7a) Island of Lesbos, and because Sappho was assc with lesbian, that’s why the term was used to call homosexuals lesbians Question 7b) A cliff where according to legend, you could cure yourself of love sickness. If you jumped into the water and survived, you weren’t in love with the person anymore. Sappho fell in love with a ferryman who fell in love with ferryman who transported Aphrodite that gave him antidote that made him irresistible and then he rejected her. Question 7c) Sappho School Mistress – she addresses females, but it doesn’t say anywhere that these are younger females. She doesn’t ever say that shes teaching them anything. In antiquity, the idea of Sappho being an older mentor was already there, she was compared to Socrates. So people have transferred this idea onto Sappho. In the 19C, philology (study of ancient text), led to a situation where they felt uncomfortable of female homosexuality. But at the same time, Sappho was very important figure in poetry, and didn’t want her to be tainted by female sexuality. Cleanse by saying her poetry isn’t about anything educational, it only provides context. Strong hypothesis because people wanted to have a clean Sappho, and later people made a sex school out of it: Sappho sexually initiating students came about. Ancient Medicine An established sciences, and there are actually a lot of theoretical writings preserved  Tons of medical writers from antiquity!  Many theories/obvs might seem slightly obscene to us from a modern prospective Today if you become a doctor, you swear the “*HIPPOCRATIC OATH”: swears to certain rules, which all go back to antiquity (sworn to oath for thousands of years) *HIPPOCRATES,  Comes from island of COS  have many writings under name of hippo, but most of these are probably not authentic. It’s not that he actually wrote all of that, not one whole systematic theory that is put forth by one person, but it’s a school of thought  The dozens of triteses are united under the *CORPUS (body) HIPPOCRATICUM: a latin adj that modifies corpus – the term for all of the dozens of writings that were transported under his name  460 BC  Text on the sacred disease: EPILPESY, sent by the Gods. Some god/demon takes hold of you and makes you have a fit  Hippocratic Oath swears by the Gods of medicine (APPOLO + ASCLEPIUS son of Apollo who stands for profession)  “I swear to prescribe medicine for the good of the patient according to the best of my ability of my judgment” …No harm, no deadly drugs, no sex with patients, no giving women a pass for abortion, and sworn to secrecy PRINCPLES OF ANTIQUITY… PRINCIPLES OF TODAY  In the corpus, lots of gynecology ideas  These tristeses mostly focus on mythology  Which is why we don’t really hear about the female body, but what can go wrong in the female and why it can go wrong…. Why F aren’t a good as M In antiquity, doctors were all M. So access to F might be hard because F would oppose it *HAGNODIKE – first F doctor, wanted to study medicine to find cures for women, but couldn’t because she wasn’t a man… soooo, she disguised herself as a man. She was successful because she showed women that she was a F, so she was put on trial for sleeping with F patients because of the jealousy of male doctors. She was prosecuted for being a female who practiced as a doctor as a M, but F patients fought for her IDEA OF HOW MALES MISTREAT FEMALES In general, one might say that in Antiquity 2 females body 1) Belongs to school of Hippocrates: women completely different from man 2) Aristotle: examined everything. For him, women are the less superior version of the M … FEMALE = AN INFERTILE MAN *MENSTRATION: important part about females Defining features of a women: responsible for all illness in women. People thought that Fs have too much liquid in them, which is what makes them unstable. Liquid is unpredictable, which makes them unstable. All of this unpredictability is assc with menstrual flow, which is the flow of too much liquid in F body. HUMOR THEORY: comedy, moods have to do with body fluid  4 CATEGORIRES: HOT vs. COLD + DRY vs. WET  These combinations give us 4 humors…  4 elements are in every person, but depending on which ones prevail is what constitutes our mood and b. There are 4 character types assc with the 4 possible combinations  Thought of until the 19C  Medical basic prescribed based on humor theory  Put leeches on you and drain blood reflects idea that fluids are wrong and it would some how heal you 4 combinations that give us different humours DRY + HOT assc with yellow bile = “CHOLERIC” bad temper DRY + COLD assc with black bile = “MELANCHOLY” depressed and sad, opposite of choleric MELANCHOLY vs CHOLERIC WET + HOT is blood = “SANGUINE” cheerful, optimistic, good mood – MOST (+) TYPE of 4 humors WET + COLD is phlegm = “PHLEGMATIC” no energy, always sits HOT vs. COLD + DRY vs. WET dichotomy also apparent in women
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