#1..invective- poem which is attacking and aggressive
4. point given for ‘context’ - Told by Hesiod in his Works and Days (story of Promethreus)
5. - lost points for not making a structured argument of the Helen issue. Not just listing facts, needed to give more
structure - explain the plain/removal of blame- argue one side(ish)?
7. good - term lesbian meant ‘from lesbos’ - one mark for that. in antiquity they were known as Tribades - one
mark for that
8. 2 parts to an answer
- wha tis lucedian cliff? - a cliff which according to legend you could cure yourself of love sickness - if survived you
would be over them, if you ied didnt really matter anyway.
- second part: sappho fel lin love with phaon - aphrodite gives him ointment makes him irresistble, with sappho for a
while, then leaves her and she commits suicide off lucadian cliff.
9. lost marks for not listing the pre- wiliamowitz protrayal of sappho (very homosexual based, as prototype sappho.
- also bettter explained how wiliamowitz ‘purified’ her - said there was no physical descriptions in the poertry
FINAL EXAM CUMULATIVE
SECOND MIDTERM COVERS MATERIAL FROM AFTER 1st MIDTERM UNTIL THEN
Ancient Medicine/Ancient Gynecology
- we actually have a lot of theoretical medical writing preserved from antiquity
- modern doctors all take the Hippocratic Oath - swears to obey certain codes
- this all goes back to Antiquity - named after Hippocrates (from island of Cos - greek speaking
island in Mediterranean)
- we have lots of writing attributed to him, but probably a lot are not authentic
- Hippocrates becomes like the prototype of the doctors
- we have dozens of treatises under the name of ‘Corpus Hippocraticum’
- ‘Corpus’ - meaning body (as in body of work)
- ‘Hippocraticum’ - under name of hippocrates’
Born around 460 BC
- his most read text is the ‘text on the sacred disease’ (Epilepsy) CLA219H1F
- Epilepsy regarded as a disease sent by god or demon which takes hold of you and puts you into
- the hippocratic oath is millenia old
Hippocratic oath - you swear by a bunch of relevant gods ( ie. Apollo and Ascilipius (son of
ie. “I swear to prescribes regiments for the good of the patient ...”
In oath you swear to do no harm, not to have sex with patience, not to prescribe a paciery(sp?) to
*These are principles which were there in antiquity and still are today.*
In this ‘Corpus Hippocraticum’ there are a lot of text on female anatomy, femlae health (procre-
ation, sterility etc.)
- these treatises focus on pathology - cases of diseases and when things go wrong. About what
can go wrong in the female body..
In antiquity the practicing doctors all male
- so sometimes female patients would refuse to be treated by male patients
- women were very secluded from males (stayed in household), so they
- Hagnodike - first known female doctor in antiquity
- wanted to study medicine and learn how to cure women but wasnt allowed because only men
could become dotors
- 4th /3rd century bc - disguised as a man, went to Alexandria to study and was very successful
- but caused a lot of jealousy among oter male doctors - accused her of sleeeping with the pa-
- so she is put on trial for sleeping with female patinets
- on trial she reveals herself as woman
- but this is also a crime... but in the end all the women fought against it.
- According to this story - as a result of Hagnodike’s story, free-born women could now become
In General in antiquity there are 2 schools of thought on female body:
1st) School of Hippocrates - women as COMPLETELY DIFFERENT FROM MAN
2nd) Aristotle (4th cent BC) - women as INFERIOR VERSION OF MALE
- a woman is an infertile man.. CLA219H1F
- seen as a defining feature of female
- almost believed that there was an ‘excess of liquids’ in females and this has to come out ever
month - because of their liquids they are unstable, moody, etc.
- menstral flow is therefore an expression of this ‘too much liquid’ in the women
- this discussion of liquids, fluids, and body temp is essential to ancient medicine
- The 4 Humors-
- now we understand humor as comedy
- but it literally means a body fluid
- in ancient theory certain constellations of hot cold dry and wet cause certain moods
Each of these can combine with another and give you diff humor (4 kinds):
DRY + HOT = yellow bile
DRY + COLD = black bile
WET + HOT = blood
WET + COLD = phlegm
Each individual, according to ancient theory, had all these elements. But depending on which
prevailed in us would constitute our mood and our behavior.
4 character types associated with these 4 possible combinations:
WET + HOT (BLOOD) = Sanguine person (‘sanguine’ - cheerful, optimistic)
DRY + HOT (YELLOW BILE) = Choleric person (hot tempered, aggressive, irritable)
DRY + COLD (BLACK BILE) = Melancholy person [opp. to choleric type] (depressed,
WET + COLD (PLEGHM) = Phlegmatic (lazy, slow, withdrawn)
This was believed into the 19th century. medical treatment was prescribed on this humor theory!
ie. blood leaching fully based on this theory! CLA219H1F
Dichotomy of HOT/COLD and DRY/WET also applied to ancient theories of women.
- firm and compact vs. loose and spongy
- male vs. female
- according to ancient text, women soak up excess fluid from stomach and have too much mois-
ture and this conditions their irrational behavior (like wool which soaks up moisture)
- the male firm and compact therefore not overly moisture and therefore doesn’t menstruate
- breasts of women are example of how much ‘looser’ women’s bodies are.
- what makes women craz