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Lecture 11

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University of Toronto St. George
Victoria Wohl

Lecture 11: Historical Women I: Ptolemaic Women from Berenial to Cleopatra November 27 , 2012 Final Exam and Midterm:  Midterm marks will be given next week and discussion regarding it afterwards - Final exam is cumulative! - Similar to the midterms (definitions, short questions, and longer questions) but with the addition of an essay at the end - Essay  very important chunk of the mark. Very open ended/broad. Bring in as many aspects and important info you can to cover the topic. - Choice of 3 topics to choose from (pick 1 from 3). Give yourself an hour to write it. It is encouraged that you be creative with your style of essay, i.e. you can do a dialogue discussing your thesis. However, you will NOT be downgraded if your simply write a standard essay. So totally up to you! 1. Greek-Egyptian Queens - 1 century BC - Hellenistic time  236 BC - Alexander the Great o Real name: Alexander III of Macedon. Born in July 356 and died either 10/11 of June 323 BC o Tutored by Aristotle until the age of 16 o By the age of thirty, he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient worldstretching from the Ionian Sea to the Himalayas o Invaded India o *Image* Battle of Issus: 333BC o Died very young (Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC, without executing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia o He did not have an heir to take over his reign! o In the years following his death, a series of civil wars tore his empire apart, resulting in several states ruled by the Diadochi (pl; singular is Diadochus) = Alexander's surviving generals and heirs.  Ptolemies  Egypt  Seleucids  Near East  Antigonids  Macedon  The Diadochi referred to themselves as kings in 306 BC - Today’s Focus: Ptolemies o *Image of the Ptolemy family tree (very large)* the family is unfortunately (for us) not very creative in naming their offspring different names a lot of names repeated!  For us, we only need to know 3 of the Ptolomies:  Ptolemy I Soter (323-283 BC)  ―The saver‖  Ptolemy II Philadelphus (283-246 BC)  ―The loving‖ 1  Ptolemy III Euergetes (246-222 BC)  ―the one who does good deeds‖ - Musaeum: Greek Temple or "Place of the Muses", whence the term "museum"  Alexanderian library o Located in Alexandria, Egypt o It flourished under the patronage of the Ptolemaic dynasty and functioned as a major center of scholarship (scholars would collect all the literature they could attain) from its construction in the 3rd century BC until the Roman conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. o Plutarch (AD 46–120) wrote that during his visit to Alexandria in 48 BC Julius Caesar accidentally burned the library down. As a result, we lost a lot classical literature and works—thanks a lot Caesar!  - Ptolemy I Soter o Founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty o Ruled Egypt from 323 to 283 BC o Deified together with his wife, Berenike, in 279 BC  Theoi Sotenes: god(theoi) savours (sotenes) o Son from his previous marriage with Eurydice (daughter of Antipater): Ptolemaios Kerauros o Children from his marriage with Berenike I: Ptolemy II Philadelphus and Arsinoe II o He was a mix of Egyptian Pharaoh and Basileus (Greek word for king) - Theocritus o Greek poet o Creator of bucolic (=Greek for pastor) poetry = pastoral poetry o His collection of poems are called Idyll (derived from idyllia: forms) o Idyll 17  panegyric = song of praise (usually for a person)  praises Berenike  associated to Aphrodite  Acheron  river in the Underworld  ―she did not pass over gloomy Acheron‖ o Became a deity because she is faithful - Ptolemy II Philadelphus o Reigned from 283 to 246 BC o Ptolemy's first married to Arsinoe I, daughter of Lysimachus (one of the kings that ruled a part of the empire post Alexander the Great), was the mother of his legitimate children:  Ptolemy III Euergetes, his successor *(you only need to know this one)*  Lysimachus  Berenice Phernopherus, married Antiochus II Theos, king of Syria. 2 o After her repudiation he married his full sister Arsinoe II, the widow of Lysimachus, then of Ptolemaios Kerauros—this was an Egyptian custom— which brought him her Aegean possessions. o He and Arsinoe II came to be worshipped as the Theoi Adelphoi (=―sibling- loving gods‖)  Incorporating Egyptian tradition of marrying siblings. In Greek culture, half siblings could only marry if they had different mothers (okay if the
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