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Women In Antiquity Lecture One.docx

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Regina Höschele

Women In Antiquity (Lecture One) September 11 TH 2012 What is the definition of Antiquity?  Referring to Western Culture (Area in Mediterranean)  Different Sources  Archaeological/ Material (Houses and Tombs)  Epigraphy (Inscriptions to indicate VIRTUES HELD DURING LIFE)  Artifacts (Vases, Statues, Female Beauty)  Literature (Philosophical, Historical, Scientific, Mythological, Poetic, etc)  Mediated through texts and artefacts  Male view (Misogynistic view of women) by male authors  Goddesses in Ancient Myth Role Model for Women Ancient Greece  ARCHAIC PERIOD: ca. 750- 500 BC (Iliad & Odyssey Composed Model for later literature)  CLASSICAL PERIOD: ca. 500-323 BC (Death of Alexander the Great)  HELLENISTIC PERIOD: ca. 323-31 BC (Battle of Actium)  IMPERIAL PERIOD: Rome as a new political power (Greece becomes a province in 146 BC) Rome  Founded in 753 BC  Romulus and RRDus  ROMAN REPUBLIC: ca. 30 BC- 3 c. AD  ROMAN EMPIRE: ca. 3 RD c. AD- 4TH c. AD  LATE ANTIQUITY: ca. 4 THc. AD- 6TH c. AD  Epithet “CLASSICAL” (Passes on for generations)  Political forms change after the death of Alexander (3 Divisions)  Formation of city-states “polis”  Caesar (44 BC) Assasinated  Romans looked up to Greece  East (Asia Minor Greek Colonies)  “Polis” sending out people to colonize other states  The Parthenon on the Acropolis  Rule of Alexander the Great (356- 323 BC)  Red (Persians travelling) + Yellow (Conquered by Alexander the Great)  Ancient Rome  Romulus + Remus (Military Power)  Status of women not the same  Patriarch Societies  Women in charge of “OIKOS”  HOUSEHOLD  Misogyny (Hating of Women) Had to be tamed, Kept in household  Democracy (People in Charge of Society) Not by a tyrant  Caesar claims to be descended from the son of Aeneas (Julio) The Twelve Olympians Uranus (Caelus) Cronus (Saturnus) Zeus Hera Demeter Hestia Poseidon (Jupiter) (Juno) (Ceres) (Vesta) (Neptunus) Aphrodite Athena Ares Apollo Artemis Hephaestus Hermes (Venus) (Minerva) (Mars) (Apollo) (Diana) (Vulcanus) (Mercurius) Aphrodite  Roman Name: Venus  Epithets: Kypris, Kythereia  Born from the member of Uranus  (Hesiod) Daughter of Zeus + Dione (Homer)  Goddess of love  Wife of Hephaestus  Mother of Eros (Cupid)  Mistress of Ares  Mortal lovers: Anchises (Son: Aeneas Founding father of Rome) + Adonis  Hesiod (Theogony- Succession of Gods) The Birth of Aphrodite  Cytherea (Aphros Foam)  Philommedes (the one who smiles)  Aphrodite rising out of the Sea (APHRODITE ANADYOMENE)  Aphrodite (Mother of Eros Cupid)  Famous scene in the Odyssey (Aphrodite + Ares)  Beauty personified The Judgement of Paris  Paris must give a golden apple to the fairest goddess (Athena, Hera + Aphrodite)  Aphrodite (Promises a beautiful wife)  Athena (Promises success in War)  Hera (Promises rule over the world)  Chooses Aphrodite (Paris promised Helen)  Dispute over Helen
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