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Lecture 1 - Introduction and Goddesses - Sept 11

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Regina Höschele

Lecture 1 – Introduction, and Goddesses – September 11  Ancient Western Culture - Greece and Rome, Mediterranean  Sources are limited Different Sources  Archeological/material evidence  Epigraphy (inscriptions) o What virtues are praised? What was important to their life?  Artifacts o Vases, statues  Literature (philosophical, historical, scientific, mythological, poetic etc)  No direct way to view their lives, it's always mediated by a middle-man. Literally man. Some female authors, but not that many. Look at the sources, see what picture they represent, and remember this may not be how women say themselves. Topics  Goddesses in Ancient Myth  Women in Ancient Myth: Praise and Blame  Ancient Gender Discourse: Sex, Adultery, Prostitution  Women in Art and Poetry  Antiquity's Most Famous Poetess - (Re)Constructing Sappho  Daily Lives and Legal Status of Women  Female Body: Ancient Gynecology  Women and Ritual  Women and Politics  Historical Women I: Ptolmaic Women from Bernice to Cleopatra  Historical Women II: Clodia, Livia, Roman Empresses Archaic Greece  Iliad and Odyssey by Homer  A bit after the introduction of writing - initially oral, now could be written  Sappho and other lyric Greek poets Classical  Athens as a political centre - Sparta as their enemy  Classic is something that is so good, generations after will still think it is great  "Height of Culture" - people tend to think after a classical period, nothing is good - it is false Hellenistic  Starting after Alexander the Great dies - he built an empire and political form changes to monarchs from city-states (poleis)  Battle of Actium ends the period 31BC Imperial  Greece becomes a province of Rome 146BC Rome - founded 753BC Roman Republic (ca. 500 - mid first century BC) threw out the "7 Kings" and become a Republic Roman Empire (30BC-3rd cent. AD) : Time of Emperors Late Antiquity:  Polis sent out people to settle and colonize  We have the most information about Athens because it was so important  Parthenon - Classical Greek Architecture (447-432BC Periclean Age)  Alexander the Great (356BC-323BC)  Romulus and Remus and the founding of Rome Role of Women  Most cases we are talking about patriarch societies - all of the power and activities lay on the male side - misogyny, hatred of women  Women must be "dominated and tamed" and are not trustworthy etc. Athens  "birthplace of democracy" the people are in control, yet slaves and women have no part Mythology  Male succession - Uranus - Cronus - Zeus etc etc Aphrodite  Roman Name: Venus  Epithets: Kypris, Kythereia  Born from Uranus' penis (Hesiod) in another version daughter of Zeus and Dione (Homer)  Goddess of Love  Wife of Hephaestus  Mother of Eros  Mistress of Ares  Mortal Lovers: Anchises (son: Aeneas - Trojan and "founding father" of Rome takes the Romans to Italy) and Adonis  Aphrodite Anadyomene - a "rising up" - her coming out of the water  How Aphrodite cheats on her husband Hephaestus (Odyssey) o Ares shows up who is super sexy compared to Hephaestus o Eros tells Hephaestus and Hephaestus makes an invisible net to catch them to make a mockery of them o Marriage was a commercial transaction - women were baggage, going from father's protection to husband's protection  The Judgement of Paris o Hera
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