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CLA 219.L09.11 - Intro / Classical Goddesses

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University of Toronto St. George
Regina Höschele

CLA 219 - Women in Antiquity R. Höschele Lecture 1 – 09/11/12 - Evaluations: o 2 Midterms and a Final exam  10/16 and 11/20, 1h each  December, 3h - NO textbook but a sourcebook Sources for study of Women in Antiquity - Archaeological / material evidence - Epigraphy (inscriptions) - Artifacts - Literature (philosophical, historical, scientific, mythological, poetic, etc.) - What we know/ learn is mediated by these evidences which had been provided by MALES - Historical periods: o Greece  Archaic – ca. 750-500 BC --- Homeric writing, poets, Sappho  Classical – ca. 500-323 BC --- ended with the death of Alexander the Great  Hellenistic – ca. 323-31 BC --- ended with the Battle of Actium  Imperial – Rome as a political power (Greece became a province in 146 BC) o Rome --- founded in 753 BC, according to legends st  Roman Republic , ca. 500 stmid-1 c. BC (monarchy overthrown in 509 BC, civils wars in 1 c. BC lead to the creation of the Republic)  Roman Empire ca. 30 BC – 3 c. BCd  Late Antiquity – 4 -6 c. AD - The term “classic” means a great piece of work o Classical = exemplary, the height of culture ~ but this is not true - There are few public roles for women, all else is domestic o A lot of misogyny is directed to women o Often secluded, dominated by the men - Men in charge of public roles – physical and military duties, political offices, etc. The 12 Olympians - Aphrodite / Venus o Epithets: Kypris, Kytheria o Born from Uranus (Hesiod) ~ from the genitals >> aphros = foam OR daughter of Zeus and Dione (Homer) o Goddess of Love o Wife of Hephaestus, mistress of Ares, mother of Eros o Mortal lovers: Anchises (son Aeneas), Adonis  Caesar claims descent from Venus because his family, the Julii, were said to be descended from Aeneas and therefore divine o Castration of Uranus – fresco by Giorgio Vasani o Hesiod’s Theogony 178-200 ~ birth of Aphrodite (H.G. Evelyn-White) o Aphrodite is also sometimes called Philommedes – love to smile OR Greek for “penis” o Aphrodite Anadyomene = Aphrosite Rising  Anadyomene = rising out of o Aphrodite a popular subject of Renaissance paintings because it gives artist the opportunity to create a naked form of the female body o Myth: Aphrodite’s and Ares’ tryst and Hephaestus’ trap (Odyssey)  Showed that women are property o Aphrodite is more about Lust and Passion than Marital Fidelity o Myth: Judgment of Paris (Iliad)  Rufinus’ poem about the Judgment of Paris was all about butts - Artemis / Diana o Daughter of Zeus and Leto, twin sister of Apollo o Virgin goddess of Hunting  Chastity associated with hunting o Resided over crucial aspects of women’s life: transition from maidenhood to womanhood, childbirth o Later identified with Selene (Moon) o Symbols: bow and arrow, stag o Myth: Death of Actaeon o Temple a
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