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Intro + Goddesses.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Regina Höschele

Lecture 1 (09/11/12): Introduction / Goddesses - Historical sources are limited; Archaeological remains, Epigraphy (inscription), Artefacts, Literature (philosophical, historical, mythological, etc.) - Inscriptions tell the ideals of recently dead women (tombstone engravings); offers to gods - Little to no direct contact with women in antiquity, always filtered through the eyes of men (writers, painters, etc) - Not easy to unlock historical truths but being aware of the bias' allows you to discuss the ideas - Greek timeline: Archaic (750 - 500 BC), Classical (500 - 323 BC), Hellenistic (323 - 31 BC), Imperial (146 BC forward) - Battle of Actium: Naval battle near the city of Actium in Greece in 31 BC between Marc Antony (and Cleopatra VII) and Octavian (later Augustus Caesar). Octavian wins, Marc Antony and Cleopatra are killed. Last battle of the Republic. - Roman timeline: Founded 753 BC, Republic (500 - 50 BC), Empire (30 BC - 200 AD), Late Antiquity (300 - 500 AD) - Tragedians: Sophocles, Euripides, Aeschylus - The status of women is not static in time and space, it varies, but there is general misogyny and patriarchy throughout antiquity - Athenian democracy was limited to the freeborn men of Athens - Aphrodite: Roman name Venus, Often called Kypris or Kythereia. Born from the member of Ouranos (Hesiod) or of Zeus and Dione (Homer). Goddess of love and beauty. Wife of Hephaestus, mistress of Ares, mother of Eros. Mortal lovers Adonis and Anchises (begot Aeneas) - Julio-Claudian dynasty claims to be descendant of Aphrodite through Aeneas' son Julus - Aphrodite Anadyomene: Aphrodite rising out of the water after she is born - The idea of women as property even among the gods (Hephaestus asks for the dowry back during the song of Ares and Aphrodite) - The gods are caught in embarrassing and human situations even though they are gods and held in high regard by the people - Aphrodite is given the golden apple by Paris with the promise of a beautiful wife, he gets Helen and starts the Trojan war - Artemis: Roman name Diana, Virgin goddess of hunting. Daughter of Zeus and Leto, twin sister of Apollo. She resides over the transition from maidenhood to womanhood
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