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Regina Hoschele

Terms Battle of Actium: 31 BC – Octavian (later named Augustus) vanquished Mark Antony and Cleopatra; ended the Hellenistic Period and ushered in the Imperial period. The Egyptian Ptolemy fell; the Roman Empire was divided and governed by monarchs Hieros Gamos: refers to a sexual ritual that plays out a marriage between a god and a goddess, especially when enacted in a symbolic ritual where human participants represent the deities. In Greek mythology the classic instance is the wedding of Zeus and Hera. Hymn: invocation of a god; song of praise, addressed to a god, transmits some tale connected to the god Iambic poetry: named after Iambe; poetry whose content attacks, blames, mocks, is obscene (e.g. Semonides on women; women compared to animals) Invective: poem of attack Misogyny: ‘misos’ – hatred, ‘gyne’ – women; hatred of women; refers to general disdain for women in Greek society (e.g. Hesiod’s Works and Days; Pandora as first woman responsible for all evils of the world) Myth: legends belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods, heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own ritual practices. They were a part of religion in ancient Greece. Ab ovo: from the beginning of the story (reference to one of the eggs of Leda and Zeus, disguised as a swan, from which Helen was born. Had Leda not lain the egg, Helen would not have been born, so Paris could not have eloped with her, so there would have been no Trojan War etc.); vs. in media res Argonautica: Greek Hellenistic epic poem about Jason and the Argonauts and their quest for the Golden Fleece; by Apollonius of Rhodes6 Barbarian: Someone who is not Greek Comedy: obscene jokes, linked to Dionysius (god of wine, ecstasy, festivity), phallic associations Encomium: mortal version of a hymn, praise for man Didactic: poem meant to instruct or teach (e.g. Theogony and Works and Days) Palinode: an ode in which the writer retracts a view or sentiment expressed in an earlier poem (e.g. Stesichorus – “The Case for Helen”) Epic: Stories of journeys of heroes / struggles; e.g. Odyssey and Iliad Potiphar wife’s motif: Euripides’ Hippolytus play: Hippolytus refuses to worship Aphrodite so she makes his stepmother Phaedra fall in love with him – she tries to seduce him and when he refuses she frames him for assault // Potiphar’s wife in the Biblical story of Joseph Tragedy: extension of ancient rites in honor of Dionysus. 3 Tragedians of ancient Greece Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides E.g. Medea Androgynous: combination of masculine and feminine characteristics Apotropaic: wards off evil; attributed to man’s penis, a symbol of potency and fertility, often seen in gardens or walls of homes (e.g. fresco of Priapus in Pompeii) Discourse: institutionalized way of thinking as seen in Foucault’s History of Sexuality (observed in Aeschines’ speech “Against Timarchus”) Erastes: Active, bearded lover in a pederastic relationship Eromenos: passive, non-bearded, feminine beloved Herm: sculpture of bust with male genitals; erected at cross-roads serving an apotropaic functions as well as designating borders; Hipparchus set-up many along roads with moral messages Hermaphrodite: having male and female / ambiguous genitalia; named after Hermaphroditus, son of Aphrodite and Hermes. He was a minor deity of bisexuality and effeminacy; nymph Salmacis was in love with him – they became one Hetaera: chosen life of prostitution; courtesan; un-enslaved (ex-slaves from other cities), unmarried woman; educated; influential; independent; would enter relationships with males, exchange of exclusive gifts, participated in political life, outlets for unmarried Greek men Lex Iulia de adulteriis coercendis: Statute by Augustus about adulterers; law punished adultery with banishment; guilty parties were sent to different islands, part of their property was confiscated. Husbands could kill the partners under certain circumstances and were required to divorce adulterous wives. Pederasty: a (usually erotic) relationship between a young man and a pre-pubescent boy outside his immediate family. The word pederasty derives from Greek word for "love of boys" Phallus: an erect penis, a penis-shaped object, or a mimetic image of an erect penis Porne: woman who sells body on continuous basis to different men; worked in brothels; were slaves Tintinnabulum: wind-chime with apotropaic function (e.g. Priapus’ wind-chime) Agalmatophilia Archaic smile Carpe Diem Elegy Epigram Epitaph Kore Kouros Memento Mori Mimiamb Mimos Olisbos Parakl
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