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Lecture 5

CLA230 Lecture 5 Notes

4 Pages
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Department
Classics
Course Code
CLA230H1
Professor
Dimitri Nakassis

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CLA230 Lecture 5 Notes System Collapse - palaces are thstroyed th - around 13 century B.C., early 12 century B.C. - unclear why – fire destruction in Mycenae, Mediterranean, etc. - in Tiryns, fire destruction was accompanied by earthquake – perhaps in Mycenae as well - fire destructions are also the reason for the preservation of some linear B tablets – firing of clay tablets - reasons for fire destruction – accidental, earthquake, perhaps human intervention – unsure - some explanations – internal and external - internal • social unrest • infighting etc. – Greek mythology • extended drought • systems collapse - external • sea peoples • invasion from the north • cessation of international trade - myth – “Heroic Age” could be Greek Bronze Age – they destroy each other - sea peoples • known from Egyptian propaganda • Ramses III “brags” that he drove some out of his territory • perhaps well-organized raiders that swept across Mycenaean Greece, destroying as they went • unclear how effective they truly were – much of it may be Egyptian propaganda – sea peoples’ ability may have been exaggerated - old explanation – Dorian invasion • Dorians came out of Northern Greece and took over • return of the descendants of Herakles, the Dorians • take back what was theirs • Sparta was part of Dorian Greece – the Dorian invasion justifies their rule of the Peloponnese • all later propaganda perhaps and not actually a historical fact - shock to eastern Mediterranean system – deterioration of Greece because of reliance on international trade - unclear what actually happened – likely a combination of events - internal vs. external stimuli – to formulate theory of collapse - event vs. process – is it an event, such as the burn of the palaces and systemic destruction, or is it a slow descent and the destruction of palaces being the most important factor, converging at 1200 B.C. - one event or multiple events over time? - many Mycenaean palaces that appear to be separately controlled – one underlying cause for palaces, or all different causes for the destruction of each – results are not all the same - at Pylos – extreme depopulation after palatial destruction – more or less abandoned - at Mycenae/Tiryns – continued to live in the area after the destruction – Tiryns even gets slightly larger and a small palace is built in the ruins of the previous one “The Dark Age” - around 1200-800 B.C. - early Iron Age - loss of writing, monumental architecture, sculpture, figural art, population, and rich burials (for the most part) - period of intense scrutiny – transition from Bronze Age culture to Classical culture Problem of the “Dark Age” - not too much evidence to properly identify what truly happened - Papadopoulos quote: “Too much was happening in Early Iron Age Greece for it to warrant the term ‘dark age’.” - types of available evidence – relative scarcity means too much weight is put on individual bits of evidence - example of Snodgrass’ “pastoralism” theory, archaeology at Nichoria, and Greek historical traditions - Anthony Snodgrass • theory that in early Iron Age, there was a basic economic change – “pastoralism” • reason for the lack of archaeological evidence – because they travelled so much, they only created temporary settlements • in Homer – heroes often raided each other’s cattle and livestock – Snodgrass uses this to support his theory – remembrance of early Iron Age period • problems with theory – study animal bones, etc. – at Nichoria site • in Iron Age, the number of cattle bones increased compared to sheep and goats • many bones that were processed in early Iron Age – likely not found in excavations • as well, not found in other sites – just Nichoria – issue of sample size - problems with chronology, absolute and relative - regional variation – cannot synchronize dates - chronology - reliance on tomb assemblages – use pottery to date – pottery chronology – with regional variation it is difficult to connect typologies Basileus - wanax – linear B – hon
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