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Lecture 3

CLA230 Lecture 3 Text Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Dimitri Nakassis

CLA230 Lecture 3 Text Notes Key Terms (Ch. 3) - oikos: “house/family” – social foundation – includes slaves, close relations, the house and its contents – basic concept consists of monogamous union of man and woman to produce and rear legitimate children - Sappho: • female poet who lived around 600 B.C. – very few female poets • studied for information on the female viewpoint on gender – celebrates love and marriage as a woman’s primary concern • addressed some poems to other women, suggesting homoerotic love – term lesbian comes from this; Sappho lived on the island of Lesbos - misogyny: “hatred for women” – important theme in Greek culture – women represented as an evil influence – i.e. Pandora - Xenophon: • Athenian aristocrat and professional soldier • wrote about women around 400 B.C., describing a fictional conversation between Socrates and Ischomachus • does not represent women as a punishment to men, in the way that Hesiod did • believes that the gods made men superior to women – tough, more disciplined, more suited to outdoors – therefore the husband is in control – however marriage is about partnership (he and wife must work together) • husband should educate his wife to contribute to the household in an equal way to his contributions - Aspasia: courtesan of Pericles – courtesan is ‘hetairai’ in Greek – bore Pericles a child; he kissed her in full view of his fellow citizens and she conversed with intellectuals - Pederasty: • “boy-love” – part of the social environment of Greek society • homosexual behaviour between the mature sexually active ale (erastes – “lover”) and the prepubescent passive partner (eromenos – “beloved”) • part of the environment of the Greek symposium, where prepubescent males served wine and learned about adult male behaviour • shameful to remain an eromenos after sexual maturity – however it sometimes still happened - amphidromia: • “running around” – ritual for newborn children to bring them into the community in a formal way • holding baby in his arms, father walks around the heath, presenting the baby to Hestia • establishes the child’s legitimacy and future status as a citizen • friends and neighbours bring gifts of octopus and cuttlefish • parents hung olive branch outside the door if the child was a boy, and a tuft of wool if it was a girl • smear walls with black tar to turn away hostile spirits attracted to the bodily fluids of childbirth - Hestia: goddess of the hearth – name literally means “hearth” Sexuality - wife’s success in life was judged mainly by her ability to produce heirs – male children - males in literature often refer to sexual activity in marriage as “work” – to produce heirs - sex outside of marriage acceptable for males, but not females – however adultery with a free woman was dangerous – her father/husband/brother/son could kill the adulterer – usually the adulteress was spared - poleis imposed heavy fines on adultery to prevent blood feuds - in Athens – fine for adultery twice that for rape - prostitutes – divided into two categories: ‘courtesans’ (hetairi) and ‘whores’ (pornai) - pederasty was common – Greek males having sexual relations with boys – adult erastes introduce younger eromenos to the ways of polite society – sexual and intellectual aspects - much known about male sex life – about women, not as much Adults and Children - children were the center of Greek life - birth and first few days of life were most hazardous for child and mother - fathers had the right to decide whether to keep the newborn baby or expose (left to die) - appears that girls exposed more than boys - unwanted children often were left in well-known slave trading areas – babies would either die of exposure or were sold into slavery - wanted babies, that survived the first few days, underwent rituals – most important ritual was amphidromia – child is named at the fifth day festival, or if family was wealthy, at a second festival, the dekate – tenth day party - strong bonds formed between child and wet nurse - children reared together until five to seven years of age – after this age were segregated - girls learned weaving and housekeeping skills necessary for when they would marry - boys spent time in the field with their fathers – in wealthy families boys received proper schooling – learned alphabet, memorized poetry (especially Homer) and performed it with a lyre – schooling ended around fourteen years of age - fathers and older kin – controlled wild teenagers - at eighteen boys became adults and were accepted as full citizen warriors Key Terms (Ch. 4) - fertile crescent: a band of well-watered land stretching from the Persian Gulf in the east, northwest along the Tigris-Euphrates rivers, then down the Mediterranean coast - Neolithic Revolution: the charges that occurred (domestication of crops and animals and shift toward sedentary village life) as settled populations grew and hunter-gatherers had to settle down and join the farmers, move away from them, or continue to live alongside them and perish of disease or starvation - Indo-European: a single family of languages that are all similar and likely evolved from a single proto-Indo-European language – some languages in this family are Sanskrit, Irish, Gothic, early Persian, Germanic, Greek, Armenian, Celtic, etc. - proto-Indo-European: single ancestral language to all Indo-European languages that existed sometime in prehistory - secondary products revolution: the evolution of farming – keeping animals longer, not just for food – the shift toward raising animals for traction, milk, wool, and not just for meat - Early Bronze Age: • 3000-2300 B.C. • craftsmen learned to mix copper with tin/arsenic to produce bronze • many advances in architecture – large monumental buildings erected • at Lerna, House of Tiles – around 2500 B.C. - Lerna: city in Greece, close to Tiryns and Mycenae - House of Tiles: large
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