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Lecture 10

CLA230 Lecture 10 Notes

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Dimitri Nakassis

CLA230 Lecture 10 Notes Greek Colonization - by 550BC, had colonies all over the Mediterranean, stretching from Asia Minor in the east to Italy in the west - culture influenced others in the area – Romans and Etruscans - quote: “Godlike Nausithoos left and led a migration, and settled in Scheria, far away from men who eat bread, and driven a wall about the city, and built the houses, and made the temples of the gods, and allotted the holdings.” - quote is perhaps an example of a Homeric colony - descriptions of how colonies were formed – cities would send out people to form a colony – will keep its ties with its mother city – example of Syracuse, a colony of Corinth - temples and walls were built quite early after a colony was founded - sometimes it is possible to see allocations of land to settlers - Megara – between Corinth and Athens - colony – Megara Hyblaia – street plans survive from 650-625 B.C. - street plans show an area with an agora - surviving street plans of colonies were more regular than those of the mother cities Causes of Colonization - idea of carrots vs. sticks - positive and negative forces driving colonization - example of wealth-seekers and opportunists vs. refugees and exiles - perhaps land hunger was a cause • increasing population • famine • inheritance problems as land was split among sons for many generations • political Disputes – being a citizen in a colony may have been preferable to losing citizenship in the mother city - trade, resources, etc. as causes – better access to metals, resources, slaves, land, etc. Cyrene - colony established around 631 BC - present-day Libya – mother city was Thera - Akatiri was on Thera – was recolonized – Dorian colony - Cyrene became a very successful city - only source for the herb silphium – only grew in Cyrene and was used in medicine and cooking - silphium herb is now extinct – result of either over-harvesting or desertification of the area - presence of silphium – Cyrene became more powerful than the mother colony - not uncommon – often it was the smaller poleis that sent out settlers because of the lack of resources in their own city-state – Corinth was an exception however - colony of Cyrene was ruled by kings – King Arkesilas II of Cyrene in mid-6 th century B.C. - Pindar wrote two victory poems for king Arkeslias IV in chariot victory at Delphi in 462 B.C. - Pindar wrote poems for athletic heroes - hero Battus was buried in the city – only heroes were buried within city walls - in Pindar’s Pythian 5 – Battus is described to be civilizing Cyrene - Herodotus wrote two foundation stories – one was told by the people of Cyrene and the other by the people of Thera - other fragmentary sources are present as well - there is a 4 century B.C. inscription from Cyrene that tells the story Theran Story - told by Herodotus – what the Therans say - consultation of King Grinnas – the oracle at Delphi – consulted “on other matters” - the Pythia – priestess of Apollo at Delphi - oracle orders him to found a colony in Libya - the location of Libya was unknown to them – therefore they ignored the oracle - result of ignoring the god Apollo – no rain on Thera seven years - went back to the Oracle at Delphi – the Pythia again told them to colonize Libya - to determine where exactly Lybia was – ask resident aliens if they were from Libya - Corobius of Itanos – knew of the island of Platea which was next to Libya - found Platea, an island off of Libya – Therans decided to send one of every two brothers to Libya – selected by lot - Battus was the expedition leader and becomes the king of the future colony Cyrenean Story - also told by Herodotus - Etearchus – king of Oaxos - King Etearchus had a daughter – Phronime - wife/mother died – Etearchus remarried - stepmother falsely accuses Phronime - Etearchus finds a merchant – swears an oath to do his bidding – orders him to take his daughter to sea and drown her - merchant throws her in the ocean – pulled her back out - Phronime becomes a concubine and child was born – named Battus - Battus means “the stammerer” – also a Libyan word for king - Battus goes to the Delphan oracle to fix his speech impediment – the Pythia tells him to colonise Libya and refuses to say anything else - attempt to found a settlement – however, Battus does not have the resources to succeeed - tries to return to Thera after his failure – not allowed back so they return to Platea and create a settlement on the island Conclusions - failure of the Platea settlement - Azirir – six years, then relocated to Irasa th - Cyrenean invitation for settlers under king Battus II Eudaimon in the late 6 century B.C. - attempt by Cyreneans to gain protection from the Egyptians - Exygptian expedition – Pharaoh Apries launches the expedition against the Cyreneans but are ultimately defeated Story Comparisons - similarities • consultations with Delphi • Battus as the leader of the colonial foundation in both stories • first settlement is at Platea - differences • Theran story emphasizes role of the city – Battus is just someone who was chosen by an older king at random • Cyrenean story emphasizes role of Battus – birth and life is connected to a king Pindar
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