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Lecture 14

CLA230 Lecture 14 Notes

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Dimitri Nakassis

CLA230 Lecture 14 Notes Inscriptions and Greek History - famous example of the Rosetta Stone, dated 196 B.C. – decree establishing the cult of Ptolemy V - importance of the Rosetta Stone – trilingual text of Egyptian hieroglyphic, Egyptian demotic, and ancient Greek - example of the Dreros law code, from the second half of the 7 century B.C. Types of Greek Inscriptions - private • tombstones • religious dedications - public • laws and decrees • religious calendars • alliances • public work schedules • expenditure accounts • inventories • commemorative documents • lists of office-holders Pros and Cons of Inscriptions - pros • direct products of political actions – democratic vs. aristocratic literary texts • supplement literary texts – financial records that would not be otherwise recorded • constantly discovering new finds - cons • context/background is sometimes elusive • chronology is sometimes difficult • fragmentary texts Chronology of Inscriptions - magistrates - example of memorial for Peisistratos – not “the Peisistratos”, but his grandson - must have been built around the time he was archon or shortly thereafter - some of the text is missing – do not have his full name - clearly he is one of the tyrants – the father’s name is written and it can be concluded who he is – supplementation to the text - quote: “This memorial of his office Peisistratos son of Hippias set up in the precinct of Pythian Apollo” - archonship of Peisistratos was in 522/521 B.C. Fragments of Archon Lists - record of the archons - there are nine archons at a time but one “main” one - inscription of people who were archons in consecutive years - people would like to know who the archons were – only fragments remain – can fill in the gaps based on when archons were in power through chronology - filled-in fragments are not entirely accurate but it makes sense – very close approximations - archon Kleisthenes – likely the famous one – from an “accursed family” – because they murdered people who were attempting to become tyrants - the murdered people were killed in a sanctuary – holed up in a sanctuary to Athena but began to starve – told they would be given a fair trial if they came out but they were murdered when they emerged - considered to be “accursed” which meant that they were therefore banished - the famous Pericles was from this family - fragments of the archon list have been filled in, with the chronology approximation of 527/526 B.C. up until 522/521 B.C. - list of six consecutive archons – Onetorides, Hippias, Kleisthenes, Miltiades, Kalliades, Peisistratos - chronology appears to be accurate – Miltiades was archon in 524/523 B.C. Letter Forms - idea postulated that it was possible to figure out when inscriptions were inscribed based on the letter form rd nd - between 425 B.C. and the end of the 3 century B.C. to the mid-2 century B.C. – the forms of lettering changed shape - it has been shown that the letter forms are not indicative of chronology as was once thought - one such indicator was the shape of the sigma – either three or four bars - note that most Greek inscriptions have no punctuation and are all capitals - it was thought that the three bar sigma was from the early 5 century B.C. and that the four bar sigma was from the late 5 to 4 centuries B.C. - however, inscriptions also have been found that are before or after the suggested letter form dating - inscriptions are important for understanding the expansion of Athenian power that builds up to the Peloponnesian War Athenian Life - example of the Athenian casualty list, dated 459 B.C. – Athenians are listed by tribe - tribes – Erechteis is one of the Athenians tribes – names of the dead of the particular tribe are listed, and the generals are identified - list of the war dead is useful – interesting to know that in the particular year of 459 B.C., Athenians died in Cyprus, Egypt, Phoenicia, Halieis, Aegina, Megara – tells of the extent of military action - reason for the military campaigns – likely raiding Persian holdings – confirms what is known and gives a sense of how active the Athenians were at one time - inscriptions also tell about Athenian life – religious practices - temple from the 420s B.C. – Athena Nike – Athena as the goddess of victory - before the temple was built, there was already an early cult – altar to Nike was built before the 420s B.C. - inscription on Athena Nike – dating is unclear – much debate about the time – perhaps 448 B.C., or 430 B.C. - inscription explains how the priestess was chosen - quote: “[For Athena Ni]ke a priestess who … from all Athenian women shall be [appointed], and the sanctuary shall be furnished with doors as Kallikrates shall prescribe. The Poletai shall let the contract out for hire in the prytany of Leontis. Payment to the priestess shall be 50 drachmas and the legs and hides from public (sacrifices).” - continuation of the inscription – mentions the work done on the sanctuary - quote: “A temple shall be constructed as Kallikrates shall prescribe and an altar of marble. Hestiaios made a motion. Three men shall be elected from the Boule. They, together with Kallikrates, after making the specifications, shall [indicate to the Boule] the manner in which…” - motion to construct a temple of Nike and institute a new priestess - inscription is interesting – of and for the democracy – the priestess is chosen of all the Athenian women - old priesthoods were held by a particular family - idea of a shift to true democracy – appears to take place in all areas of state and religion - the Parthenon itself is actually not that important in religious terms – all significant statues and temples were around it - priesthood of Athena was help by one particular family – and held for life – idea of the old priesthoods - not many limitations to being a priestess – therefore holding office for life was not a a great sacrifice – get paid and receive the best cuts of meat at festivals - any priesthood under democracy was also democratic – perhaps chosen by lot - priestesses are paid, with extra money coming in from animal hides – sell to leather workers – “payment to the priestess shall be 50 drachmas and the legs and hides from public (sacrifices)” Political History and Athenian Empire - 454/453 B.C. – treasury of the Delian League is moved from Delos to Athens - treasury was moved mainly for protection - signifies beginning of the Athenian empire - recordings of tribute on stone – 1/60 of the tribute given was a religious tithe – religious tithe was recorded because it was for the gods and therefore had to be accurate - historical record of tribute - take recorded number and sixty times that is the total amount of tribute - tribute as an example of something not recorded by Thucydides in his history - tribute was important for Athenian expansion - Greek numbers were like the Roman numerals – example of the Lindioi tribute recorded - Lindioi – people of Lindos, a city of Rhodes - fluctuations in tribute can be seen over various years – can see the members of tribute-paying people • 454/3 B.C. – 137 members • 453/2 B.C. – 144 members • 452/1 B.C. – 143 members • 451/0 B.C. – 152 members • 450/449 B.C. – 163 members • 449/8 B.C. – no tribute • 448/7 B.C. – tribute resumes - puzzling – recorded that there was no tribute for one year - can compare tributes and events that are known to have occurred – therefore can determine explanations for tribute fluctuations as well as the year without tribute - truce with Sparta in 451 B.C. explains the increase in members - theory for the lack of tribute – peace treaty with the Persian king, the 449 B.C “Peace of Kallias” - “Peace of Kallias” is not mentioned by Thucydides – only mentioned by later orators – historical truth was doubted even by ancient historians – but its truth would make sense with the lack of tribute – tribute would no longer be needed as it was primarily used to fight the Persians - resuming of tribute – protection against Athenians not the Persians – beginning of the Athenian empire Tribute from Miletus - Milesians are from Miletus – tribute given from Milesians not from Miletus - 454/3 B.C. – “Milesians from Leros” and “Milesians from Teichioussa” - for one year – no Milesian entry – 453/452 B.C. - later on – next year just “Milesians” give tribute – without qualification - attempt to understand what is going on – by 452 B.C. – Miletus is part of the Athenian empire - early entry – pro-Athenian Milesians not from Miletus – perhaps political exiles - pro-Athenian factions perhaps leave but continue tribute payment - then by 452 B.C. – Athens somehow takes control of Miletus – therefore the tribute resumes - idea of not being “all or nothing” - inscription about political expulsions from Miletus – dated 470-440 B.C. - quote: ““[the sons of N]ympharetos, and Alki[mos and K]resophontes, sons of Stratonax, shall suffer blood-guilt [banishment], both themselves and their descendants, and by whomsoever anyone of them might be killed, 100 staters [400 drachma] shall be given to him from the [property] of the family of Nym[phare]tos.” - city of Miletus puts a hit out – any descendants can also be killed - politics in Miletus – expulsions and severe punishment - know the names of the people involved and what will happen to them – but not why – likely political because it involved the entire family - blood-guilt – likely killed someone – political killings – punishment handed out Athe
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