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The 4th Century - Nov. 22 2010

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University of Toronto St. George
Dimitri Nakassis

4 Century - Nov. 22 th Early 4 Century • Sparta main power for almost next 50 years • Corinthian War (395-387/386BC) • King’s Peace (387/386BC) • Second Athenian Confederacy • Leuktra (371BC) – Theban hegemony – end of Peloponnesian League, Epaminondas general • Mantinea (362BC) • Everyone gangs up on the power: 1) Sparta beats Athens, everyone beats on Sparta 2) Thebes gains power, everyone beats on Thebes 3) Macedonians come after everyone is weakened Lysander’s Ascension • Sparta takes his power away Persian Succession • Darius II dies 404BC • Artaxerxes II gains power • Cyrus rises in revolt • Battle of Canaxa 401BC – Cyrus dies, warriors trapped and have to journey home – Xenophon writes a book about it Sparta and Ionia • Tissaphernes demands Ionian tribute • Ionians ask for and get protection from Sparta in 399BC (Thibron) • Spartan commanders raid Persian satrapies • Battle of Sardis (395BC) • Pharnabazus (satrap) sends Rhodian Timocrates with 50 talents • Sardis = Spartan win Thebes the Troublemaker (395BC) • Skirmish between Phocis + Locris • Locrians ask Thebes for help, Phocians ask Sparta • Lysander marches into Boeotia, Athens teams with Thebes • Lysander dies after taking Orchamenas – defeated at Haliurtus • Alliance of Athens, Boeotia, Corinth, and Argos (395BC) Corinthian War • Sparta allies are the central southern Peloponnese • Battles of Nemea and Coroneia (394BC) technically Spartan win but mostly indecisive • Persians put together a fleet and defeat the Spartans at Cnidus (394BC). Conon is the Persian general, is Athenian fighting against the fleet bought by the Persians to beat Athens. • Spartan garrisons expelled from islands (autonomy promised) • Pharnabazus supports quadruple alliance financially in 394BC, permission and money to restore Athenian fortifications Spartan Democracy (392BC) • Spartans want peace and send Antalcidus to Tiribazus the Persian commander • Sparta promises to stay out of Asia • Byzantium charges 10% on Black Sea goods, and expel Athenians from Lesbos Military Developments • Peltast fighter more effective • Battle of Lechaeum (391BC) 250 Spartan hoplites killed of 600 • Sparta having trouble producing hoplites King’s Peace (387BC) • Persian establish to switch support to Sparta from Athens. Spartan navarch Antalicides seizes Hellespont to choke off Athens and make them accept a peace and give Persians the Asian settlements • Athens loses new empire when cities made autono
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