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Philip and Alexander

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University of Toronto St. George
Dimitri Nakassis

Wednesday November 2311Introduction to Greek HistoryD NakassisPhilip and AlexanderLeuktraBrings Spartas dominance on land to an endTurning pointThebes becomes the number one power on the Greek MainlandXenophon is our best source for the battle but strangely isnt interested in ThebesWealthy Spartiates assign their horses to the least strongambitious menSpartans and Thebans have cavalry in front of the phalanxThe Spartan phalanx is no more than 12 men deep while the Thebans phalanx is 50 men deepThe Spartan king Cleombrotoson right wing phalanx to prevent driftThebans emphasize their left wing 50 men deep to attack king sideThe Spartan cavalry are overwhelmed and are tangled with their own phalanxThe right Spartan wing is initially victorious but seeing the failure of the left they retreat1000 Spartan deaths 400 being SpartiatesThe Battle According to Diodorus and Plutarch6 Boetarchs undecided on whether to fight Epaminondas convinces themEpaminondas puts best soldiers on left wing instead of the rightAdvances with left wing while right wing avoids battle an oblique formationSpartans fight bravely but are ultimately routed especially after the death of CleombrotosMore than 4000 Spartans died only 300 BoetiansSacred Band379338 BCComposed of young men attached to each other by personal affection Plutarch PolybiusA parallel with the 300 Spartan Hippeis horsemenMaintained and trained at public expenseCould be put at front rank of Theban phalanxAt Leuktra Polybius commanded this band attempting to outflank Epaminondas Plutarch Polybius Theban HegemonyMantinea reforms cityArcadian federation proposed in 370 BCSparta invades ArcadiaEpaminondas invades Laconia Messene Megalopolis Spartas dominance depends on these territories and Epaminondas cuts that awayBattle of MantineaEpaminondas invades Peloponnese in 302 BCOpposed by Mantinea Sparta AthenslEisIndecisiveEpaminondas first man of Greece killed in battle
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