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Lecture 2: Origins of Civilization in Italy down to the Monarchy

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Glenn Wilkinson

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Origins of Civilization in Italy down to the Monarchy Earliest Evidence of Permanent Settlements and Agriculture (4000 BCE)  Stone and bone implements  Villages made of clusters of huts, populations of less than 100  No differences of wealth or labour between people except gender Bronze Age (~3000 BCE – 900 BCE)  Bronze = tin + copper  Bronze was a major technological advance o Weapons o Armour o Tools  Bronze production relied on trade for materials  Trade spread from near east to Britain  Evidence of arts and crafts trade  Trade allowed Italy to flourish  Village life was unchanged Iron Age (~900 BCE)  Iron was used to make steel  Allowed further development of agriculture and warfare  Settlement sizes ~1000  Class division was evident in burials  Male warriors were buried in the center with weapons, armour, chariots  Other males and females were buried further from the center  Huts were replaced with more permanent housing, using stone and brick th  Importation of luxuries from Greece during 7 century BCE  Military developments, raiding and settlements of ~10000 in the 6 century BCE Four Regions in Archaic Italy and Sicily  Etruria o South of the Po River Valley o West of Apennine o North of Rome and Latium o Etruscan spoken th th
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