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Lecture 3: Foundation of the Republic and the Struggle of the Orders

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Glenn Wilkinson

Foundation of the Republic and the Struggle of the Orders The Last King and the Rape of Lucretia  Romulus was the first of seven kings  Romans became increasingly autocratic  Crown prince Sextus Tarquinius lusted after Lucretia  Raped Lucretia and gave her an ultimatum, as a result she committed suicide  Lucretia’s family swore vengeance against the Tarquins th  At the end of the 6 century ~ 509 BCE, there were no longer any kings and Rome was governed by a republic Republican Constitution  Res publica – public matter  Magistrates  Elected by the people  Finite terms  Principle of collegiality o More than one magistrate to avoid power centralization  Consul o Highest authority in Roman Empire o 2 consuls were appointed per given year o They were the lead generals in war o Military imperium was only granted to consuls who were outside of Rome o Highest civilian authority  Proposed legislature  Punished criminals o 12 lictors  Bodyguards  Carried the fasces, symbols of power  Praetor o Annual office o When consul is absent, praetor has authority o If necessary was granted military imperium o Originally only 1 but more were added if necessary o 6 lictors  Aedile o Annual office o In charge of buildings  Quaestor o Annual office o Managed funds  Cursus Honorum – course of offices o Minimum age for election of 30 o Advanced up the ranks as years pass  Outside of the Cursus Honorum o Censor  Only former consuls were appointed as censors  2 censors for every 5 years, usually only held office for 1.5 years  Responsible for census  Compiled lists of roman citizens with details for voting procedures  Can remove people from people from the senate for “perceived moral flaws” o Dictator  In times of crisis 1 man was given absolute authority  24 lictors  Term no greater than 6 months  Tribune of the plebs  Struggle of the orders o Senate  Originally advised the king  Cursus Honorum holders made up the senate  Responsible for major spending decisions  Decided where consuls fought wars  Received diplomats  Made legal proposals - Senatus Con
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