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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 Beginnings of Empire

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Glenn Wilkinson

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Lecture 7 (September 25) First and Second Punic Wars / Beginnings of Empire 1. First Punic War (264-241 B.C.) a. Rome invades North Africe; catastrophe; Regulus (256-255 B.C.) b. Stalemate, victory, and truce (255-241 B.C.) 2. The Interwar Period (241-218 B.C.) 3. Second Punic War (218-202 B.C.) a. Hannibal in Italy (218-207 B.C.) b. The Spanish Front and the Scipios (218-207 B.C.) c. Scipio “Africanus” and Hannibal Clash in North Africa (204-202 B.C.) d. Postscript on Hannibal rd nd 4. The Beginnings of an Empire in the Western Mediterranean (3 -2 centuries B.C.) a. Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica b. “Cisapline” Gaul (northern Italy) c. Iberian Peninsula (Spain/Portugal) d. “Transalpine” Gaul (southern France) e. Africa Proconsularis (Tunsia) First Punic War (continued) - sent both consuls to North Africa – both with large army - attempt to win the war - encounter Carthaginian fleet of ships – routed them, naval victory - some initial success on land – but not enough - with winter approaching the consuls split up – one headed back and the other stayed behind with 40 ships to winter in North Africa - next year, 255 B.C., Regulus (one of the two consuls) and his army was decimated by the Carthaginian army – Regulus taken captive and about 3,000 out of the 20,000 survived - reinforcements got there too late – and on way back to Italy they weer caught in a storm – 50,000-100,000 men died - catastrophe – generations in Punic Wars s the best examples of Roman virtue – determination - anecdote #1: after losing large percentage of navy, Rome built another 140 ships in a matter of months – no catastrophe was so large that they could overcome it - anecdote #2: Regulus sent back to Rome to negotiate prisoner exchange; went to Rome and advised against it, and later returned (kept his word and returned to Carthage) - honourable Roman man as a typical self-image - incident with Regulus – occurred in 250 B.C. (war had been on for about 15 years) - war continued until 242 B.C., with minor victories and losses until Rome won a series of decisive victories - rather than risk another invasion of North Africa – settled for a truce and forced Carthage to pay large indemnity Interwar Period - state of Carthage • navy decimated and not enough resources to continue • no longer able to draw upon Sicily to staff army/troops • huge indemnity to Rome – could not afford to pay mercenaries in their employ - embroiled in controlling the revolts of mercenaries - both Corsica and Sardinia under Roman control - devised new strategy – campaign into Iberian peninsula (Spain and Portugal) - leading general Hamilcar – military offensive in Spain to find resources (metal and manpower) - son of Hamilcar later took over– Hannibal - meanwhile, Rome kept an eye – in 218 B.C. they intervene - capture of Seguntum – Romans became very upset – claimed that it was under their protection - claim of Romans that Hannibal that he had violated the truce by capturing Saguntum – demanded that Carthage hand over Hannibal (they refused) - refusal – Rome declared war as a result Second Punic War - major military campaign to Spain – but Hannibal and army had already left - Hannibal travelled through the Pyrenees and the Alps with about 50,000 men and war elephants – to Italy - travelled through southern France - Hannibal lost most of his men (and an eye) in the Alps – very costly journey - caught Romans by surprise the following year - attempt to counteract was to assemble a makeshift army in northern Italy – destroyed however - by this point the Roman army was from all over Italy – Hannibal released all non-Roman captives that had been serving the Roman army - Hannibal made an ally of the Gauls – Gauls and Romans were enemies - Gauls played a role in the Latin war and had once sacked Rome - Rome dispatched a large military force, which was subsequently crushed – Hannibal again released non-Roman captives - Rome again assembled army – prepared for another confrontation - two armies met at Cannae – result was that one consul and almost the entire Roman army (about 50,000 men) was destroyed - at this point Hannibal began to remove the rings off the Roman men and returned to Rome – show of his superi
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