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L9- The changing face of roman society in the 3rd and 2nd century BCE.docx

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Glenn Wilkinson

The changing face of roman society in the 3 rdand 2 nd century BCE 1. Wealth a. Sources; the roman treasury b. Building boom (example of Cato’s temple of Victoria Virgo, founded 193 BCE c. Large agricultural estates (lafinundia) d. Influx of slaves 2. Growing cultural diversity a. influx of non- romans b. Influx of Greek culture c. adoption of foreign religious cults (e.g Magna Mater) 3. Changes in Government a. Expanding number of magistrates b. Prorogation c. Role of governors d. Increased competition for political office Major change in 3 and 2 centuries -booty (gold, silver, metal) from war went into public treasury located in the temple of the god Saturn rd -starting in 3 centry rome profited from charging large endemities from the cities they defeated (Didn’t really do it to cities in Italy) but did it carthage in east Greek states nd -middle 2 century Rome became very rich, most visible in physical city itself- There was a building boom. When generals returned home they bult temples to the gods to thank them for success- Cato made the temple of Victoria Virgo where he dedicated his booty -richer citizens were constructing mansions for themselves, wealth was transforming physical city -in Country wealth changes- Rome seized land from other Italian Cities. The farm land rome acquired tended to go to the same few people (rich get richer) by 2 century elites owned huge farms- transformed from small individual farms to giant estates. These estates were called (Latifundia) In 2 and 3 century there was a huge influx in slaves (lot of these people were captives from Romes wars) Also was human trafficking (pirates captured people and sold them to rome) -It was slaves that allowed the aristocrats to run these giant latifundia -Drawback of having slaves- Lived in fear that their slaves would revolt -First Slave revolt broke out in Sicily in the 130’s BCE, revolt lead by serian slave, who raided states, freed other slaves to run his army, declared himself king and evaded Enna in Sicily and massacred free citizens -His success inspired others in Sicily to do the same thing, when the roman army moved in they were initially defeated by the “freedome fighters” Took 4 years for Roman army to get control (136-132) -influx of slaves allowed for boom in wealth and increased productivity but also an increase in
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