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L2- Foundation of the republic and the `Struggle of orders``.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Glenn Wilkinson

Foundation of the republic and the “struggle of the Orders” 1. Consolidation of notes from Friday’s discussion 2. The last king (L.Tarquinius Superbus) and the rape of Lucretia 3. Republican constitiion: a) Magistracies b) Senate c) Voting assemblies (centuriate and tribal) 4. “Struggle of the orders” a) Patricians and Plebeians b) Establishment of the Plebeian Council (494 BCE) c) Tribune of the Plebs Emneas Myth: It reflects rivalry with the Greeks, connecting themselves to Greek cultural technology Choose a Trojan prince as founder (enemy of the Greeks) Treaty between Enias and king captures affinity the romans felt with the Latinus (closest ally) Romulus -Romans felt they were young civilization, arrived late on world scene -Romulus distinguishes central institutions (Laws, Religious cults, senate magistracies) -Rome grows in size and power under Romulus because he welcomed outsiders, they saw themselves as open society Myth of the rape of the Sabine women -Romans are race of warriors - Aspect of Roman identity was their military strength -Conclusion of treaty with sabines “Foreshadows” in which way rome would come to dominate Italy and aquire and empire -Initial trick played by Romulus on the Sabines offends the roman values of fair play -Romulus was first of 7 kings of Rome, AVG reign of 35 years -From Romulus on the Kings got more suppressive, final three were foreigners (Etrsucans) _Tarquinius had a son who raped Lucretia (from leading family, who was married). She committed suicide out of shame (she thought of it as shame on her whole family) -This incident caused the change to a republican government (509 BCE- end of 6 Century) This incident demonstrated their 1. Sense of honor 2. Hatred of monarchy 3. Commitment to republican government Roman Republic -Magistrates- Governed Roman Interest (Conducted foreign wars, kept law and order in City, managed cities finances, ect.) Were elected by the people -Held office for a fixed term (almost always a year) -Principle of collegiality- Always multiple Magistrates (Had to co-operate to avoid going back to bad days of the kings) Typical Cursus Honorum (Path of offices) i. Consul- Highest in roman republic. Held office for 1 year. There were two of them per year. Acted as lead generals when Rome was engaged in war.. **Right to lead army was military Imperium, only granted to consuls (Generals) once they left the borders of Rome, in Rome they had the right to call political assemblies, propose legislation, punish citizens, ect. Each has 12 lictors (body guards, they carried Fasces (Bundle with axe)] This shows they’re right to punish. Lictors introduced from Romulus ii. Praetor- Held office for one year, next high
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