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Lecture 1 Origins of Civilization

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University of Toronto St. George
Glenn Wilkinson

Lecture 1 (September 11) Origins of Civilization in Italy Down to the Monarchy 1. Earliest Evidence of Permanent Settlements and Agriculture 2. Bronze Age 3. Iron Age 4. Four Regions in Archaic Italy and Sicily a. Etruria b. Latium c. Phoenician colonies d. Magna Graecia 5. Origins of Rome Origins - Archaic Italy before writing - almost entirely from archaeological record - around 4,000 B.C. – permanent settlements and architecture Archaic Civilization - stone and wooden implements - rudimentary farming/building - population rarely over 100 people - members in village – clan (extended leadership unit) - no differences of wealth/stature seen - labour division – only between males and females – all men had the same task - men – hunting, etc. - women – childbearing, food preparation Bronze Age - takes place around the end of the 3 millennium to the 1 millenium B.C. (around 900 B.C.) - bronze as major technological advance - bronze – copper and tin alloy – mined and melted separately and them combined in molten form – into a mold - higher refinement, sharper, harder - weapons, helmets, armour - tools for crude agricultural production - degree of trade and cooperation for bronze in the Mediterranean – international cooperation - active metal trade – extended from the Near East to Britain - trade of not only raw materials but also craft - example of gold cup, dating to about 1800 B.C., north Italy – similar craft and date as seen in Germany and Britain - result of bronze – more effective tools for warfare, agriculture, and trade - beginnings of civilization - change in about 2000 years • rudimentary division of labour – trades • took a long time for increase in architecture • same village size • minor wealth divisions Iron Age - around 900 B.C. - technological leap - iron ore as very useful metal - use of iron and carbon to create steel - increase in temperature needed to refine into steel - steel – sharp edge and blunts much more slowly than bronze - further improvements • up to 1000 people or more – increase in village population • divisions of wealth/status – proof through cemeteries in the 9 century th B.C. • cemeteries – adult males cremated and buried with bronze weapons; women and other men not cremated and buried further from the center • male warrior/leader with high status and perhaps wealth - around 5 century B.C. – individual tombs with fine pottery, ornaments, weapons, jewellery, chariots - chariots with elaborate construct - proof of the increase and size of settlements - more differentiated – divisions in wealth/status - homes – redbrick to terracotta 8 , 7 centuries B.C. - evidence of public buildings – temples - evidence of importation from Greece, etc. – of luxury goods (pottery and jewellery) - as a result – Orientalizing Period th - in the 6 century B.C. – increase in military activity - previously only quick raiding of neighbours occurred - some cities had population in tens of thousands - organized warfare Regions in Archaic Italy and Sicily
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