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Lecture 11

Lecture 11 Government and Military

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University of Toronto St. George
Glenn Wilkinson

Lecture 11 (October 4) Government and Military 1. Campaigning for Office a. Cicero b. Running for the Consulship c. Political Advertisements 2. Governing the Provinces a. Taxation (term: publican) b. Cicero, Governor of Cilicia 3. Military a. Organization and Equipment b. Discipline c. Legion (vs. Phalanx) Cicero - Born in late 2 ndcentury B.C. – 106 - born to a leading city - elite of Italian cities – if Roman citizens were classed among the equestrians - equestrians could enter political Roman life – right connections, money - considered the greatest orator - dabbled in literature and philosophy – books, speeches, letters survive - best historical source of the time - quaestor – 175 B.C. - ascent – “new man”, first in his family to enter the Roman senate - consul in 63 B.C. – rare honour for “new men” (such as Cato the Elder) - title Planning for a Campaign – end of first paragraph (brother of Cicero) - new men were well aware of the difficulties in politics - expectation that Cicero would walk to the forum every day – idea to become a public figure, campaign for office - encourage to draw on wide range of connections - second paragraph – Quintus tells him to make sure everyone knows his good connections - can see the idea of reciprocity and exchanging of favours - third paragraph – appeal to the senators that he is a traditionalist and not a populist – gain favour with the traditionalist senatorial class - attendance – clients must be managed and cultivated – relationships – have a vote and can convince others to vote as well - campaign promises – promise the world, and if cannot deliver, worry about it later - campaign slogans chiseled into walls –vote for x Governing a Province - basic responsibilities of a governor – primarily a military commander (initially) - secondarily – assigned taxes, collected money from locals, administered justice - collection of taxes – very complex and constantly changing - generally – Rome took control and locals covered the expense of being governed - initially the governor would demand/take what was needed for campaigning – very ad hoc - later on there were fixed percentages based on people and land - home owner – pay fixed amount for each person in household, and land based on ability to provide goods - over time – application of taxes more regular - once rate of taxation was fixed – Roman senate would auction off the right to collect taxes to individuals or groups/corporations - tax farming – person who won the contract would pay entire expected amount up front - always equestrians – wealthy non-senators – senators were not allowed to bid for them - term for people – publican/publicans - tax contracts were often per year - publicans were universally hated – not only collecting taxes on demand, but also could hike to any amount - in communities unable to pay the amount demanded – had to take out loans from the publicans themselves at a high interest rate - very exploited system – major headache for governors – balance interests of publicans and
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