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Lecture 12

Lecture 12 Marius and Sulla

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Glenn Wilkinson

Lecture 12 (October 9) Marius and Sulla 1. Crisis in Numidia and Gaul a. trouble with Jugurtha b. trouble with the Germans 2. Marius a. background and early career b. first consulship (107 B.C.) and defeat of Jugurtha (105 B.C.) c. four more consulships (104-100 B.C.) and the defeat of the Germans d. conflict with the optimates, military reforms 3. The Social War 4. Sulla a. background and early career b. first consulship (88 B.C.) and “First March on Rome” c. Sulla in Greece, Marius and Cinna’s reign of terror (87-84 B.C.) d. civil war and Sulla’s “Second March on Rome” (83-82 B.C.) e. dictatorship (81 B.C.), proscriptions, reforms, and death (78 B.C.) Crises - in 146 B.C. when Scipio Amellianus destroyed Carthage – established Proconsular Africa -not entirely under Roman control - two kingdoms – Mauretania and Numidia – sometimes allies and sometimes a thorn in the side of Rome - king of Numidia – died and his son Jugurtha seized kingdom – killed his brothers, but one surviving brother - surviving brother appealed to Rome – Rome divided Numidia in two - did not work – Jugurtha killed his brother and took over again – Rome declared war - difficult to re-establish order and control in Numidia - also in trouble with the Germans – province of Transapline Gaul in year 121 B.C. but within a decade the region was almost completely overrun by various tribes - between 113 B.C. and 105 B.C. – Rome undertook campaigns to remove Germans but constantly defeated - worst defeat in 105 B.C. – noble and “new man” generals were unable to get along - defeats in Numidia and Transalpine Gaul were embarrassing – blamed the incompetence of generals – many were prosecuted - enter Marius Marius - town of Arpenum (like Cicero) - prominent local family in the town but not in Rome – equestrian - as a young man – fought in Spain under Scipio Aemilianus - backing of senatorial patrons – starting in late 120s B.C. be began ascent in cursus honorum - status as new man was an obstacle to become consul - election was opposed by optimates - managed to win based on widespread appeal to the masses - won consulship in 107 B.C. - took command against Jugurtha and successful - captured Numidian king in 105 B.C. – with the help of Mauratania - elected consul in 104 B.C. for a second time - sent to Transapline Gaul to solve the crisis there as well - from 104 B.C. to 100 B.C. – elected consul the five consecutive years - consul a total of six times - won a string on major victories against the Germans - for victories in Numidia and Gaul – Marius was hailed the saviour of Rome - group who did not trust him – optimates therefore as a new man he was automatically suspicious – but also because of his populist strategies - senate had denied when he was to be sent to Numidia – but popular demand forced it through - changes Marius made to army recruitment – to qualify a man had to be a citizen and meet a property requirement - but to raise a larger army – ignored the property requirements and recruited heavily from the lower masses - in turn for service the landless destitute were promised a plot of land – Marius distributed massive plots of land to veterans after each battle - land grants were opposed by majority of senators - grants passed because of popular support, but also because veterans used violence and intimidation against those two opposed - republican ideal was that each Roman soldier wanted the best for the Roman state - new soldiers – devoted solely to general and their own monetary gain - but appears that Marius had no designs to take over republic - around 100 B.C. became unpopular with his main fan base - disappears for a while Social War - war of the allies – Latin term socius that means ally - agitation for greater inclusion in the Roman state – Latin tribes and allies - status of Italian cities until then were complicated – some had Roman citizenship (full or partial), others allowed only magistrates to be citizens, and yet others were merely allies - allies wanted more privileges – opposed by the optimates and majority of senators - year 91 B.C. – Roman senator was murdered while holding office or tribune – supported granting citizenship - assassination triggered the event – established their own capita, Italia, and
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