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Origins of civilization in Italy down to the monarchy.docx

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Kevin Wilkinson

Lecture 1: Origins of Civilization in Italy Down to the Monarchy Earliest evidence of Permanent settlements and agriculture  First evidence appears in 4000 BCE  Occupants of Italian peninsula used stone and wooden tools  Villages were clusters of a few huts  About 100 people per settlement  Members belonged to a single clan  No differences between wealth/status  Division of labour only within the sexes Bronze Age  Introduction of bronze a major technological advancement  In Italy around the year 3000 BCE  Lasted until the 1st millennium BCE (900)  Allowed for more refined implements - more sharp, hard  Developed tools that improved agricultural production - made it more efficient  Degree of skill and trade began to foster throughout the mediterranean  Very active metal trade - stretched from near east to Britain  Arts and crafts trade also prominent without the Mediterranean  Golden cup found in northern Italy for m Montecchio Emilia o Similar to cups from the same date found in Germany and Britain o Shows trade in raw metals and arts/crafts  More effective tools for warfare  All sets stage for Italy to flourish  Division of labour - experts in bronze items  Village life for the most part remained unchanged o No increase in settlements or status Iron Age  Began around 900 BCE  Production of iron represented another technological leap  Led to the production of steel o Sharper edges, lasted a long time  Used for warfare, improvements in agriculture, etc.  Tools became more sophisticated  10th - 8th century - larger settlements o About 1000+ people per settlement o Evidence in differences between wealth and status among communities o Some cemeteries show that only some adult males were cremated and buried with bronze weapons in the center  Women and other males were not cremated and were not centered  Possibly shows that there was a warrior class  8th century - tombs have metal ornaments, weapons, jewelry, chariots and weapons  Shows that some people were wealthy  8th and 7th centuries BCE - huts replaced with homes built of stone with terra cotta roofs  First public buildings were built - mostly temples  7th c. BCE - significant importation of luxury goods from the east (mostly Greece) o Pottery and jewelry o Period known as the orientalizing period - "easternizing"  6th c BCE - military activity increased o Cities grown to the tens of thousands which increased rapid warfare Four Regions in Archaic Italy and Sicily  Each little town or city had its own politics  Different language, gods and customs throughout villages 1. Etruria 
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