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Lecture 12

Lecture 12: Marius and Sulla
Lecture 12: Marius and Sulla

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School
University of Toronto St. George
Department
Classics
Course
CLA231H1
Professor
Glenn Wilkinson
Semester
Fall

Description
Marius and Sulla Crisis in Numidia and Gaul  Trouble with Jugurtha o After 146 BCE, the destruction of Carthage, Africa was still not under control o The king of Numidia, an ally of Rome died and split his kingdom between three sons o Jugurtha killed one of his brothers and the other appealed to Rome o They agreed to split Numidia between the remaining brother, Rome and Jugurtha o Jugurtha captured his brother and executed him o This began a war with Numidia and Rome  Trouble in Germany o Rome was having trouble in Transalpine Gaul in 121 BCE o Between 113 and 105 BCE, Rome underwent campaigns to remove the Germans but were constantly defeated o Rome’s worst defeat was in 105 BCE, due to nobles and ‘new men’ being unable to get along  These failures were embarrassing to Rome and unsuccessful generals were prosecuted Marius  Background and early career o Born in Arpinum into the equestrian class o Marius was climbing the cursus honorum in the late 120s BCE  First consulship (107 BCE) and defeat of Jugurtha (105 BCE) o His election to consulship was opposed by the optimates but he was elected Consul by popular support in 107 o He managed to defeat Jugurtha in 105 with the help of Mauretania  Four more consulships (104-100 BCE) and defeat of the Germans o During 104-100 he was elected consul four more times and managed to defeat the gauls  Conflict with the Optimates; Military Reforms o The senate did not like him because he was a new man and a populist o He recruited men of lower status and promised them land through a proposal o It was opposed by the senate but passed through popular support o His veterans also used violence and intimidation to prevent dissenters from voting o The veterans had no care for the senate because they came from the lower class o In 100 BCE he became unpopular and disappeared from the political scene The Social War (91 – 87 BCE)  Some Italian cities wanted more inclusion in state affairs  In 91 BCE, a tribune who supported citizenship in Italian cities was assassinated  This sparked a revolt in some Italian cities  The rebels had early success  In 90 and 86 BCE, whoever joined back with Rome was granted citizenship  In the end all Italian citizens were granted citizenship  This resulted in the unintended consequence of Romanization of Italy Sulla  Background and Early Career o Born to the patrician class o Elected quaestor in 107 o Served under Marius in the wars against Numidia and Gaul o Elected praetor in 96 o Elected governor in 96  First Consulship (88 BCE) and the “First March on
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