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Lecture 11

Lecture 11: Government and Military

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Glenn Wilkinson

Government and Military Campaigning for office  Cicero o Born in 106 BCE in Arpinum o Regarded as the greatest Roman orator o Considered one of the best historical sources of the time o He was a ‘new man’, the first of his family to enter the senate o Elected quaestor in 75 BCE and later elected consul in 63 BCE, rare for a ‘new man’  Running for the consulship o Walk to the forum every day while campaigning for office o Appeal to the senators as a traditionalist o Have clients who can vote for you as well as convince others to do the same o Promise votes everything, worry about fulfilling those promises later o Campaign advertising was very unconvincing, ‘vote for X because he will give you Y’ Governing the provinces  The basic responsibility of a governor was mainly military initially  Secondary responsibilities were to assign taxes, collect money from locals and administer justice  Taxation o Normally, Rome only took what was needed by the governor to campaign, very ad hoc o Taxation was complex and constantly changing o Later , taxes were based on people in the household and their land’s ability to provide goods o Tax farming, was the practice of contracting people to pay for the right to collect taxes, such people were called publicani o These people were often equestrians and they had to pay the amount for the contract up front o Publicani had the power to change the taxation rate to whatever they wished o People who could not pay the tax were given loans at extreme interest rates o Publican were hated and called exploitative o Governors could still demand payment o
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