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Lecture 18

Lecture 18: Antony and Cleopatra + more Civil War

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University of Toronto St. George
Glenn Wilkinson

Antony and Cleopatra + more civil war Conflict with the Parthians (42-23 BCE)  Because of civil wars, Rome was starting to lose its grip in the east  In 40, Parthians attacked Roman territory in Syria and Asia Minor  Parthia gained control over most of Asia Minor in Syria from 40-39  In 39-38, Roman armies pushed the Parthians out of Asia Minor and Syria  In 37, the Parthians were distracted by their own civil war, and in 36, Antony led an army to Parthia with support from other client kingdoms  Antony fought his way into modern-day Iran but his army began to fall apart, his cavalry returned to Armenia suddenly  Antony was forced to retreat and lost a quarter of his army to the terrain and to chasing Parthians Antony and Cleopatra (41-34 BCE)  Antony sought to form an alliance with Egypt  In Egypt, the Ptolemies adopted some native Egyptian traditions such as royal incest, divine kingship and art style  After Caesar’s assassination, Cleopatra returned to Egypt  Antony and Cleopatra made diplomatic negotiations in 41 and became Romantically involved and later that year in winter, the two returned to Alexandria and Cleopatra gave birth to twins by Antony  In 39, the year when Antony first met in Brundisium, Octavia gave birth to Antony’s son  In 37, a year during Pompey Jr.’s rebellion, Antony left Octavia in Italy and later that year, Cleopatra gave birth to another of Antony’s sons  Antony was upset with Armenia and attacked them in 34  After his v
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