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Establishment of the Republic and the “Struggle of the Orders”.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Kevin Wilkinson

Establishment of the Republic and the “Struggle of the Orders” The Last King (L. Tarquinius Superbus) and the Rape of Lucretia  Romulus was the first of seven kings of Rome, which spanned for approximately 250 years  Kings started to become more tyrannical and oppressive  Final three kings were foreigners (Etruscans)  Last king Also known as Tarquin the Proud o Had a son, who was worse than him  Lusted after Lucretia, from one of the leading roman families (already married)  Prince snuck into her bedroom and raped her  Gave her a choice: marry him or be framed for adultery  Committed suicide and made her male family members swear vengeance  Felt she brought shame to her family's honor  Her attack turned the leading families against the king  Threw the king out, and established the roman republic  Happened about 509 BCE Republican Constitution  Magistracies o Conducted foreign wars, supervised public building and the city's finances, etc. o Were elected by the people o Held office by a fixed term (approximately a year), and then replaced o Multiple magistrates, so not only one man runs the city o After mid 4th c. BCE  Typical Cursus Honorum --- the course of offices // men had to start from the bottom  Consul  Highest regular office in the republic  Held office for one year  For any given year, there were two consuls  Acted as lead generals when Rome was engaged in war  Usually fought on two different fronts  Right to lead an army = military imperium  Only granted to consuls when they were outside the city of Rome  In Rome, were the highest civilian authorities  Had the right to call and preside over political assemblies  Had the right to draft new legislations, etc.  Each consul had 12 lictors - minor officials who acted as bodyguards  Carried fasces, (axe bundled with rods) - symbol of roman magisterial power  Praetor  Held office for a term of one year  Next highest authority after the consuls  When both consuls were outside of the city, became the chief civilian ruler within the city  Could also receive military imperium (if 3 fronts needed)  Initially only 1, but a 2nd and eventually more were added  As the empire increased  Had 6 lictors that accompanied them - indicates same basic rights as a consul but having lower authority  Aedile  Annual term  In charge of public buildings and roads  Both new constructions and maintenance
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