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Roman expansion in Italy and war with Pyrrhus.docx

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Department
Classics
Course
CLA231H1
Professor
Kevin Wilkinson
Semester
Fall

Description
Roman expansion in Italy and war with Pyrrhus Why the Top 1% was usually in power  First candidates for office came exclusively from the top prominent families who also supplied the council when Rome was under a monarchy.  Only a current magistrate could call a meeting of the assemblies and would control the agenda  Working poor, especially small farmers outside the city of Rome did not have time to make it to the assembly to vote  Pressure to vote in accordance with the rich, who cast their votes first Narrow Oligarchy and the Struggle of the Orders  Patricians and Plebeians o Patricians: small groups of families that were already prominent within the monarchy  Status was strictly hereditary  No matter how high a family may climb in the social order, they still would not be considered a patrician (titles were already in place) o Plebeians: vast majority of the roman citizens, with a land owning requirement  Much poorer than patricians as a whole, but also included families that were able to earn a considerable amount of wealth and prestige  Establishment of the Plebeian Council (494 BCE) o Within a decade of the foundation of the republic (509 BCE), the plebs tried to force the patricians into accepting constitutional reform that would allow more plebeian input in law o Plebeians essentially went on strike, since the plebeians provided most of the soldiers  Refused to go to war  Plebs managed to win an important constitutional reform in 494 BCE --- granted the right to have their own voting body, know as the plebeian council o Set up similar to the tribal council, but there were no patricians allowed o Had the right to vote for ten of their own magistrates  Tribune of the Plebs o New annual office called a tribune, but position could only be held by a pleb o Main job was to defend the plebs from exploitation o Any attempt for physical Harm on a tribune was publishable by death o Tribunes had the right to convene a meeting at the senate o Granted the power of veto, and could stop any piece of legislation or policy that was passed on one of the voting assemblies  Only office with this power o By end of 4th century BCE, plebeians were able to run for every office, including consul  Eventually one patrician and one plebeian would hold consulship at the same time o Once plebeians gained access to these offices, only wealthier plebeians would take these positions Roman Expansion in Central Italy  Latin federation o By the end of the monarchy, Rome was already the largest and most powerful city in Latium o Had alliances with other cities within Latium o Rome took a leadership position and established a federation of the Latin cities. o 5th century- federation was under attack by the Sabines and others living along the Apennine Mountains  Under the leadership of Rome, successfully made them drive back to the hills, showing strength of their alliance  4th century expansion (example of Veii) o Rome started to go on military campaigns almost yearly o A large segment of the male population would go on these campaigns o Earliest conquest was the prominent Etruscan city of Veii  Located just north of Rome, just across the Tiber river  Took around the place of 396 BCE  Part of the roman army laid siege on the outside of the city,and another part attacked from under the city and within  Rome confiscated the property of this city, some of its leading citizens were allowed to move to Rome and become Romans, some residents wer
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