Class Notes (809,486)
Canada (493,751)
Classics (1,680)
CLA231H1 (126)

Marius and Sulla.docx

3 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Kevin Wilkinson

Marius and Sulla Crisis in Numidia and Gaul  Trouble with Jugurtha o In 118 BCE, king of Numidia died and left his kingdom to his three sons o The adopted son, Jugurtha immediately made a move in the other two - killed one and seized the whole kingdom for himself o The one surviving brother appealed to Rome to step in o Senate agreed to split the kingdom between them o Surviving brother was executed by Jugurtha in 112 BCE o Rome declared war on Numidia  Trouble with the Germans o Rome had established the province of Transalpine Gaul in 121 BCE o In a decade, the region became overrun by German barbarians from the north o Between 113 and 105, Rome undertook several campaigns in the region to drive out the Germans o In 105, two roman generals couldn't get on the same page o 80K roman men may have died during this period o Incompetence of oligarchic magistrates to blame o Marius  Background and Early Career o Born in 157 BCE, and from a prominent family within his town o Was an equestrian o As a young man, he gained military experience fighting in Spain under Scipio o Served first as quaestor, then a tribune of the plebs in 119, and then a praetor in 115 o Status as a new man was an obstacle for obtaining consulship o Election opposed by the Optimates  First Consulship (107 BCE) and defeat of Jugurtha (105 BCE) o Won consulship on the strength of his appeal to the masses o In 107, took command of the war against Jugurtha o He captured the Numidian king in 105 BCE with the help of the kingdom of Maurentina  Four more consulship (104-100 BCE) and the defeat of the Germans o Elected consul after his expedition o Then took to Gaul to help the military expedition there o His Re-election technically unconstitutional o Elected consul every year (5 years) during his campaign in Gaul o In 102-101 won many battles against the Germans o For his victories in Numidia and Gaul, he was hailed as the savior of the republic  Conflict with the Optimates; military reforms o Did not trust Marius because he was a new man o Also didn't trust him because he used populist politics to gain power o Senate had tried to prevent him from becoming consul in 107, and later tried to stop him from leading in Numidia o Land distribution became part of the picture again o Made changes of recruitment to the roman army  Usually, in order to qualify a man had to not only be a roman citizen, but had to have the minimum property requirement  Let non-property owners be recruited, with the promise of land after their campaign o Institutied mass distribution of land to his veterans, primarily in Italy, Sicily and Africa o Land grants were opposed by the Optimates, but passed through because of popular support and violence/intimidation by his veterans to fix the voting polls o During his 6th consulship, he was involved in an incident that made him unpopular with the masses (100 BCE) The Social War (91-87 BCE)  Named after the Latin word socius, meaning ally  In the first century BCE, some Italian cities were agitating for greater inclusion in the decisions made by the state  The status of Italian cities had been complicated, but some had full roman citizen o Others had full roman citizens but the lack of vote o Others allowed the cities magistrates to only become citizens o Others couldn't have citizens at all  Allies wanted more privileges because they were giving over their men as soldiers  In 91 BCE, a roman senator who was a strong supporter for granting citizenship, was assassinated while holding tribune  This event triggered a revolt of the allies against Rome  They established their own capital, called italica  Established their own political body similar to the senate  Also established their own military, with similar roman tactics  Came as a shock to people in Rome  Another court was set up solely to prosecute those who were blamed for instigating the revolt o The tribune of the plebs who set up these courts was also convicted of starting the revolt  Rome's answer was to grant citizenship to all the Italia
More Less

Related notes for CLA231H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.