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Government and Military.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Kevin Wilkinson

Government and Military Campaigning for Office  Cicero o Born in 106 BCE into a leading family in the city of Arpenium o Elites of Italian cities outside of Rome, if they were roman citizens were classed as equestrians  Could also enter politics in Rome o Was regarded as the greatest orator of his day o Dabbled also in literature and philosophy o Single most important source for the history of the late republican period o Became a quaestor in 75 BCE thus entering the senate. o Became consul in 63 BCE, was relatively rare thing to do for a new man  Running for Consulship o New men were well aware of this disadvantages in Rome o One should walk to the forum everyday campaigning o One should use their connections - make them apparent o Have to appeal to the senators, appearing as a conservative (Optimates) o Have clients follow one where ever they go o Make promises to the voters, even if one can't fall through with them  Political Advertisements o Many survived in Pompeii o Inscribed on statues, painted on walls etc. Governing the Provinces  Taxation (term: publicani) o When Rome first began to acquire colonies outside of Italy, governors were primarily military generals  Would administer taxes, justice etc. o Taxation was enormously complex and always changing o When a region was taken under roman control, it was expected that the residents pay the general and his army o As time went in, regular taxes were added o Fell primarily on two things: people and land  A homeowner would pay a certain amount per person in his household (including slaves)  Also pay a land tax (could be paid with goods) o Once a regular rate of taxation was established, the roman senate would auction off the right to collect taxes from private citizens and corporations o Would have the right of
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