Tiberius and Caligula
Non-roman of the equestrian class
The Art of Love was a joking manual on how to hook up with somebody
o Augustus did not approve of this poem. Thought it was dentramental to Roman morals
Was exiled to modern day Romania in 8 CE
Wrought about his journeys when he was exiled
Also wrote several apologies to Augustus, but still remained exiled.
Reign of Tiberius (14-37 CE)
Relations with the Senate and People of Rome
o Augustus would regularly attend public spectacles, making him popular with the people of Rome
Had commissioned the Theatre of Marcellus. On one occasion, people feared that it
would collapse. Augustus himself sat with those sitting in the most vulnerable part of the
theatre rather than in his own private box.
o Tiberius was a different sort of man and ruler than augustus.
o He spent most of his time on military expeditions, and was a successful general.
o He retired to the Greek island of Rhodes after his marriage to Julia dissolved.
o When he finally returned to the public sphere, he returned to regular military campaigning.
o Did not have a long-standing relationship with the people of the city.
o Augustus prior had been able to get the senate to cooperate with him. Tiberius on the other hand
did not really know many of hour senators.
o When Tiberius succeeded Augustus, he was suspicious of the Senate, and the Senate was
suspicious of him.
o He relied heavily on the praetorian guard to protect his authority rather than making alliances with
o Tiberius increased the size of the praetorian guard, extended the scope of their activities and
commissioned a large headquarters for them.
o He was gradually becoming convinced that the senators were plotting against him.
o Started to prosecute senators for treason. Those who were found guilty were executed rather than
o Essentially. Tiberius had a rocky relationship with the senate and the people of Rome.
Germanicus (died 19 CE) and Drusus (died 23 CE)
o Germanicus was a nephew of Tiberius that he had adopted when Augustus was still alive.
Augustus demanded his adoption.
o Germanicus was popular for three chief reasons:
He was good looking, charismatic and personable.
He was enormously successful as a military commander in Germany along the Rhine
River. He avenged the slaughter of the three legions in the Tubercin Forest.
Unlike Tiberius, he was related by blood to Augustus. His maternal grandparents were
Octavia and Mark Antony. He was also married to Augustus' granddaughter (Agrippina)
o The people's love for Germanicus annoyed Tiberius, and was also possibly dangerous.
o Tiberius recalled Germanicus from Germany and sent him on military business in the east (18 CE)
o While he was in the east, he was involved in a conflict against thr governor of Syria.
o He died during this conflict, and many believed that the governor had poisoned him. The governor
committed suicide before he could be convicted.
o Other believed that Tiberius himself was resonsible for the assassination, and had the governor
killed to cover his tracks.
o Germanicus left behind a wife and six children.
o The next heir was Tiberius's son Drusus.
o Tiberius shared tribulation power with Drusus in 22 CE. This made him the apparent heir.
o Drusus also died under mysterious circumstances in 22 CE
Sejanus, praetorian prefect (died 31 CE) o Was a non-roman of equestrian rank, and had been praetorian prefect (leader of the praetorian
guard) since 14 CE
o Sejanus saw the growing body of the praetorian guard.
o Sejanus had a mortal enemy - Drusus, who was in line to become the next emperor
o When Drusus died, some suspected that Sejanus had poisoned him. He was suspected of having
done this with Drusus' own wife whom he had seduced.