Octavian and the Second Triumvirate
Caesar's Will and the Rise of Octavian (later Augustus)
Lepidus (magister equitum; pontifex maximus)
o Caesar's Populares associate
o Was the magister equitum, the master of cavalry
o Was in second in command to a dictator
o First move after caesar's death was to fill the position of pontifex Maximus (chief priest)
o Next he had to take command in Gaul and Spain
o Seemed to position himself to take a leading role with whatever came next.
Mark Antony (co-consul with Caesar in 44 BCE)
o Had been Caesar's right-hand man
o Served as magister equitum prior to Lepidus, and was co-consul with Caesar
o Before Caesar died, he created a will. This was deposited with the vestal virgins.
o After caesar's death, his will was read out loud in public. Stated detailed information about his heir
and what would happen to his property.
o Key points of will:
Private land and money left for the people of Rome. Every citizen gained a chunk of
money. Made him even more popular in death.
Gave gifts to many of the leading men in society, including his assassins.
Adopted his grand nephew Octavian as his male heir
o Was left to carry out everything caesar included in his will
o His mother was Caesar's niece, and his father was a new man who died during Octavian's infancy
o Served under Caesar's army at the age of 17 in Spain
o Was 18 at the time to assassination, and left his studies
o Had the ability to reject the inheritance, but accepted it and changed his name.
Conflict Between Mark Antony and Octavian (44-43 BCE)
Antony's Annoyance and his Seige of Mutina (Modena)
o Antony refused to release Caesar's property to Octavian initially
o Octavian sold his own property, and gave his earnings to the public. Made him more popular, and
made Antony looked bad.
o Octavian was popular with the soldiers. In a short span of time, he was able to amass his own
o Octavian was also winning the support of many senators. Antony on the other hand, had never
been on great terms with the remainder of the Optimates.
o Cicero himself supported Octavian.
o Antony left Rome towards the end of the year 44. Arranged for himself to take a command in
Gaul. The governor in Gaul however refused to give up his control.
o Antony laid seige to the city of Mutina in retaliation.
o This decision gave the pro-republic supporters in Rome as seeing Antony as a revolutionist.
o Speeches made by Cicero against Mark Antony
o There were 14 rants, between September of 44 and April of 43.
o Urged the Senate to recognize Octavian's status.
o Cicero possibly tried to use Octavian's popularity for his own agenda.
o Dream of ridding Rome of Antony and the restoration of the Republic.
o Cicero succeeded in making the senat declare Antony a enemy of the state, as well as granting
imperium to Octavian.
Octavian and the Two Consuls Attack Antony at Mutina
o Antony escaped, and was forced to relinquish command at the city.
o Escaped to Gaul, and formed an alliance with Lepidus.
o Both consuls died during the battle against Mark Antony Formation of the Second Triumvirate (Antony, Octavian, Lepidus) in 43 BCE
Octavian seeked one of the empty consul positions, but was initially dismissed by the senate.
Octavian took his 8 legions with him to Rome.
All of Caesar's as