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Octavian and the Second Triumvirate.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Kevin Wilkinson

Octavian and the Second Triumvirate Caesar's Will and the Rise of Octavian (later Augustus)  Lepidus (magister equitum; pontifex maximus) o Caesar's Populares associate o Was the magister equitum, the master of cavalry o Was in second in command to a dictator o First move after caesar's death was to fill the position of pontifex Maximus (chief priest) o Next he had to take command in Gaul and Spain o Seemed to position himself to take a leading role with whatever came next.  Mark Antony (co-consul with Caesar in 44 BCE) o Had been Caesar's right-hand man o Served as magister equitum prior to Lepidus, and was co-consul with Caesar o Before Caesar died, he created a will. This was deposited with the vestal virgins. o After caesar's death, his will was read out loud in public. Stated detailed information about his heir and what would happen to his property. o Key points of will:  Private land and money left for the people of Rome. Every citizen gained a chunk of money. Made him even more popular in death.  Gave gifts to many of the leading men in society, including his assassins.  Adopted his grand nephew Octavian as his male heir  Octavian o Was left to carry out everything caesar included in his will o His mother was Caesar's niece, and his father was a new man who died during Octavian's infancy o Served under Caesar's army at the age of 17 in Spain o Was 18 at the time to assassination, and left his studies o Had the ability to reject the inheritance, but accepted it and changed his name. Conflict Between Mark Antony and Octavian (44-43 BCE)  Antony's Annoyance and his Seige of Mutina (Modena) o Antony refused to release Caesar's property to Octavian initially o Octavian sold his own property, and gave his earnings to the public. Made him more popular, and made Antony looked bad. o Octavian was popular with the soldiers. In a short span of time, he was able to amass his own private army. o Octavian was also winning the support of many senators. Antony on the other hand, had never been on great terms with the remainder of the Optimates. o Cicero himself supported Octavian. o Antony left Rome towards the end of the year 44. Arranged for himself to take a command in Gaul. The governor in Gaul however refused to give up his control. o Antony laid seige to the city of Mutina in retaliation. o This decision gave the pro-republic supporters in Rome as seeing Antony as a revolutionist.  Cicero's Philippics o Speeches made by Cicero against Mark Antony o There were 14 rants, between September of 44 and April of 43. o Urged the Senate to recognize Octavian's status. o Cicero possibly tried to use Octavian's popularity for his own agenda. o Dream of ridding Rome of Antony and the restoration of the Republic. o Cicero succeeded in making the senat declare Antony a enemy of the state, as well as granting imperium to Octavian.  Octavian and the Two Consuls Attack Antony at Mutina o Antony escaped, and was forced to relinquish command at the city. o Escaped to Gaul, and formed an alliance with Lepidus. o Both consuls died during the battle against Mark Antony Formation of the Second Triumvirate (Antony, Octavian, Lepidus) in 43 BCE  Octavian seeked one of the empty consul positions, but was initially dismissed by the senate.  Octavian took his 8 legions with him to Rome.  All of Caesar's as
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