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Pompey the Great and the First Triumvirate.docx

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Kevin Wilkinson

Pompey the Great and the First Triumvirate Pompey's Background and Early Career  Came from the Italian elite but wasn't an old family  His father was a new man, who rose to become consul in 89 o Was responsible for besieging the city of Asculum during the social war  Pompey gained military experience by serving under his father in the social war, as well as joining Sulla on the Second March of Rome  Brought three legions to the table which he had raised himself, mostly comprised of his fathers soldiers  Sulla sent Pompey to Africa to wipe out the final supporters of Marius and Cinna  Earned the nickname "the Young Butcher"  Demanded a triumph when he returned to Rome, but a triumph was irregular o Pompey was not a magistrate therefore he did not have imperium o His victory consisted of rounding up and executing roman citizens  Sulla refused to grant him a triumph, and Pompey refused to disband his army Consulship of Lepidus (78 BCE)  Lepidus was a senator who had been a supporter of Sulla, actually secretly opposed him  Was elected consul in the year 78 BCE, in spite of opposition of Sulla  Had the support of Pompey, who was emerging as a major player on the political scene  As consul, he introduced sweeping legislation that undermined everything Sulla had put into place o Proposed the return of Italian land that Sulla had seized and given to his veterans o Proposed a restoration of the grain subsidy o Proposed the restoration of the powers of the tribune o Proposed a second consulship for himself in the next year, which defied the 10 year gap between consulships  Was opposed by the other consul, who was a supporter of Sulla and the two went to war  Lepidus who was in Gaul, took his army and marched on Rome in 77 BCE o Was defeated by the other consul Catullus  Pompey withdrew his support for Lepidus, and supported the other consul  In spite that Lepidus was easily defeated, some of his proposals were implemented - restoration of the grain subsidy and the power of the tribunes Sertorius in Spain (80-73 BCE)  Unrest in the provinces, especially in Spain  Sertorius was one of the senators who opposed Sulla  Arranged for a pro-consulship for himself in Spain while fleeing from Sulla  Won a victory over forces loyal to Sulla in the kingdom of Maurantia  Returned to Spain and became the leader of an anti-Sullan rebellion, mostly made up of Iberian tribes and a few roman citizens  Over the course of the next few years, he won several battles over roman armies and managed to take control over most of the Iberian peninsula  Set up a senate in Spain, modeled after the Roman Senate  Pompey refused to give up his army after defeating Lepidus, and used his army to gain command in Spain  After several years of fighting, Sertorius was betrayed and assassinated in 73 BCE  The following year, Pompey was able to take control of the remaining rebel forces Spartacus' Slave Revolt (73-71 BCE) and the Consulships of Pompey and Crassus (70 BCE)  Spartacus was an escaped gladiator, and gathered his army of slaves on mount Vesuvius  Attracted about 70K slaves to participate in his revolt  After having some success defeating the roman army, the senate instituted Crassus as consul  Crassus was a supporter of Sulla, and became the wealthiest man in Rome after buying seized properties  He wiped out most of the slave army, and crucified the remaining 6000 soldiers along a road from Capua to Rome  Pompey returned from Spain just as Crassus was about to end
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