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Lecture

Civil War.docx

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Department
Classics
Course
CLA231H1
Professor
Kevin Wilkinson
Semester
Fall

Description
Civil War Julius Caesar's First Consulship (59 BCE) consular colleague Bibulus  First order if business was to secure Caesars consulship  Bibulus held joint consulship  Bibulus was the son in law of Cato the Younger, who was a long time rival of Caesar  Bibulus ejected Caesars first proposal for land distribution  Caesar made it clear that he was one of the Populares  Caesar was unable to get the senate to go along with his proposal  Caesar, without the senate's approval, took his motion to the tribal assembly for the popular vote  When Bibulus tried to oppose him, a riot broke out in huge assembly  The motion passed in the assembly. From there forward, Caesar bypassed the senate and went straight to the tribal assembly for votes  Caesar became unpopular with the senators  Excursus: Clodius, tribune of the plebs (58 BCE) o A patrician whose goal was to become tribune of the plebs o Caesar allowed Clodius to change his status, and Clodius was elected as one of the tribunes in 58 BCE o Clodius was adopted by a plebeian family so that he could run for tribune o As tribune, Clodius employed street gangs to disrupt the politcal process o Similar tactic was used by Marius years before. o As tribune, he managed to pass a legislation of free grain o Clodius also harassed Cicero. Had him declared an exile because he breached the law of trial before execution following the cataline conspiracy. o Clodius arranged for the other consul and Pompey to be assaulted. Also arranged for the fasces to be smashed. o Pompey advocated for Cicero, and secured his return from exile in 57 BCE. o Reportedly before his change of status from patrician to plebeian, he infiltrated a religious festival that was strictly for women by dressing in drag. He was rumored to be having an adulterous affair with caesar's wife.  When this was exposed, he was charged with incest with his sister Clodia  Cicero was one of the main witnesses to this case.  Caesar appointed himself as general in Gaul o Did this to avoid being prosecuted for what he had done while in office o Business of granting long commands was a new phenomenom State of the First Triumvirate (58-53 BCE)  Pompey's street gangs terrorized the city, battling with Clodius and his thugs  Clodius himself eventually was killed in one gang fight in 52 BCE  Can be seen as a battle between the Populares and Optimates  Opposition to the triumvirate started to intensify, mostly led by Cato the younger  Cato the Younger felt that all three fell short of political virtue  Thought Caesar was the worst of the three, and did not trust either of them  The triumvirs met in Gaul because Caesar was already there o Decided Pompey and Crassus would be the consuls for 55 BCE o Pompey would be given a five year command in Spain o Crassus would be given a five year command in Syria o Caesar extended his command in Gaul by another 5 years o Pompey led his command from Rome because he used delegates to do his building in Spain o Pompey gradually became reconciled with the Optimates
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