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Lecture 14

Lecture 14 Pompey and the First Triumvirate

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Glenn Wilkinson

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Lecture 14 (October 16) Pompey the Great and the First Triumvirate 1. Pompey’s background and early career 2. consulship of Lepidus (78 B.C.) 3. Sertorius in Spain (80-73 B.C.) 4. Spartacus’ slave revolt (73-71 B.C.) and the consulships of Pompey and Crassus (70 B.C.) 5. pirate-hunting (67 B.C.) 6. war against King Mithradates VI and other eastern campaigning (66-63 B.C.) 7. Cicero’s consulship and the Catiline Conspiracy (63 B.C.) 8. Pompey’s return (62 B.C.) and the “First Triumvirate” (Pompey, Crassus, Julius Caesar) Pompey - Italian elite but not old family - father was a “new man” – consul in the year 89 B.C. and was responsible for besieging Asculum and later called “the butcher of Asculum” - joined forces with Sulla – second march on Rome - raised three legions personally – mainly soldiers who had served under his father - was sent to Africa by Sulla – weed out Marius/Cinna followers – named the “young butcher” - demanded a triumph upon returning to Africa – would have been highly irregular – not a magistrate therefore no imperium, was really Sulla’s legate, “victory” was rounding up Romans and executing them – Sulla refused to grant the triumph (conservative and by old republic rules) - extorted triumph – refused to disband legion if not given – therefore Sulla awarded it Consulship of Lepidus - senator who had supported Sulla during restructure - however secretly opposed Sulla - elected consul in year 78 B.C. – in spite of opposition from Sulla - supported in campaign by Pompey - as consul he introduced legislation that undermined the changes by Sulla - four elements o proposed the return of Italian land that Sulla had seized and given to veterans o restoration of the grain subsidy o restoration of the powers of the tribune that Sulla had stripped away (he had neutered the power, likely power of veto as well) o proposed a second consulship of himself (in defiance of the ten year interval that Sulla had established) - return on populist politics that Sulla had attempted to eradicate - co-consul Catullus opposed him – eventually went to war over it - year after consulship, 77 B.C. – marched on Rome and easily defeated by Catullus and retreated into exile - flip – Pompey as a political opportunist, and supported Catullus in the war - grain subsidy and restoration of tribune powers were both followed through in subsequent years Sertorius in Spain - in Spain – one of the senators who had opposed Sulla and proscribed in the year 81 B.C. - as Sulla was approaching Rome in 83 B.C., he left – arranged for a proconsulship in Spain and left Rome - after proscription he was hounded by Sulla’s army – returned to Spain - created an anti-Sulla rebellion – with Iberians and dissented Romans - won several victories over Sulla and managed to control most of the Iberian peninsula - created an alternate senate – Portugal and Spain were almost its own region - again Pompey refuses to give up his command over legion – wants to be awarded a campaign in Spain against Sertorius - after years of fighting, Sertorius was betrayed and assassinated in 73 B.C. - again not a glorious victory for Pompey – like Marius, he was gaining a reputation for invincibility Spartacus - slave revolt of Spartacus – set up base on Mt. Vesuvius - former gladiator Spartacus - attracted as many as 70k slaves to participate in revolt - initial success against Roman armies - senate sent Crassus to quash revolt – raised large army and all but wiped it out by 71 B.C. - decisive victory – in which Spartacus dies – Crassus crucifies 6k survivors crucified along the side of t
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