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Lecture 15

Lecture 15 Civil War

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University of Toronto St. George
Glenn Wilkinson

Lecture 15 (October 18) Civil War 1. Julius Caesar’s first consulship (59 B.C.) [consular colleague Bibulus] a. Clodius, tribune of the plebs – 58 B.C. 2. state of the triumvirate – 58-53 B.C. 3. Caesar’s Gallic Wars – 58-51 B.C. 4. on the brink of civil war – 51-50 B.C. 5. civil war – 49-45 B.C. Civil Wars - Marius march on Rome - coup - Sulla’s march on Rome - Lepidus - Catiline Conspiracy - but previous “civil wars” very minor compared to the 50s B.C. - year 60 B.C. – first triumvirate has just formed – wanted Caesar as consul - fellow consul was Bibulus – son-in-law of Younger Cato, great-grandson of Elder Cato - the Younger Cato was a long-time rival of Caesar - little to no hope of the two consuls getting along – first legislation proposed by Caesar was opposed by Bibulus and Younger Cato – land distribution - proposed legislation was opposed by senate – Caesar is a populares - took motion straight to tribal assembly – disregarded the opinion of the senators - riot broke out in the assembly – Caesar was prepared - once order was restored in tribal assembly the motion passed - from then on Caesar routinely bypassed senate and went straight to assemblies - became vastly unpopular with senators - patrician Clodius asked to become a plebeian – wanted the powers of the tribune - himself from a patrician family Caesar allowed to switch – Clodius became tribune and employed street gangs of young thugs - organized gangs to disrupt political process – used by Marius as well (veteran violence) - allocation of free grain – tribune Clodius proposed grain dole and went through – obvious alignment with populares - harassment of Cicero – Clodius had him officially declared an exile – Cicero went to live in Macedonia for some time - arranged for consul in 58 B.C. and Pompey to be physically assaulted, and for fasces to be smashed – Pompey assembled his own gang for street fighting with Clodius - revenge on Clodius – Pompey advocated for Cicero and arranged for him to return from exile - unclear what Clodius was attempting to accomplish – appears to be creating anarchy for its own sake – most notorious for reportedly (before change of status, in 62 B.C.) Clodius infiltrated its religious festival only for women - trial of incest with sister Clodia – Cicero was a main prosecutor - Caesar prorogued – managed to do this so that he would not be prosecuted - triumvirate had lots of clout – could force through what they wanted Poem by Juvenal - talking about religious ceremonies for women only - can be “utterly female” - vague mention of Clodius – lute player First Triumvirate - mid 50s – 58-53 B.C. - street gangs of Pompey terrorized the street – battled with Clodius and his thugs - year 52 B.C. – Clodius is killed in one of the gang rioting - street fighting often considered battle between optimates vs. populares – but truly a symbol of anarchy than anything - the Younger Cato – opinion that all three in triumvirate were not good Romans and did not trust them – believed that Caesar was the worst of the three - in Cisalpine Gaul – meeting of triumvirate to plan for the future – met so that Caesar wouldn’t have to leave Gaul (his command) - decided that Pompey and Crassus would be consuls - Pompey would be given a five year command in Spain, Crassus would have command in Syria for five years, and Caesar would extend command to Gaul – managed to push through - Pompey never truly goes to Spain – sends legates – strategy that Augustus would employ later on - Pompey gradually became reconciled
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