Lecture 15 (October 18)
1. Julius Caesar’s first consulship (59 B.C.) [consular colleague Bibulus]
a. Clodius, tribune of the plebs – 58 B.C.
2. state of the triumvirate – 58-53 B.C.
3. Caesar’s Gallic Wars – 58-51 B.C.
4. on the brink of civil war – 51-50 B.C.
5. civil war – 49-45 B.C.
- Marius march on Rome
- Sulla’s march on Rome
- Catiline Conspiracy
- but previous “civil wars” very minor compared to the 50s B.C.
- year 60 B.C. – first triumvirate has just formed – wanted Caesar as consul
- fellow consul was Bibulus – son-in-law of Younger Cato, great-grandson of
- the Younger Cato was a long-time rival of Caesar
- little to no hope of the two consuls getting along – first legislation proposed
by Caesar was opposed by Bibulus and Younger Cato – land distribution
- proposed legislation was opposed by senate – Caesar is a populares
- took motion straight to tribal assembly – disregarded the opinion of the
- riot broke out in the assembly – Caesar was prepared
- once order was restored in tribal assembly the motion passed
- from then on Caesar routinely bypassed senate and went straight to
- became vastly unpopular with senators
- patrician Clodius asked to become a plebeian – wanted the powers of the
- himself from a patrician family Caesar allowed to switch – Clodius became
tribune and employed street gangs of young thugs
- organized gangs to disrupt political process – used by Marius as well (veteran
- allocation of free grain – tribune Clodius proposed grain dole and went
through – obvious alignment with populares
- harassment of Cicero – Clodius had him officially declared an exile – Cicero
went to live in Macedonia for some time
- arranged for consul in 58 B.C. and Pompey to be physically assaulted, and for
fasces to be smashed – Pompey assembled his own gang for street fighting
- revenge on Clodius – Pompey advocated for Cicero and arranged for him to
return from exile
- unclear what Clodius was attempting to accomplish – appears to be creating
anarchy for its own sake – most notorious for reportedly (before change of
status, in 62 B.C.) Clodius infiltrated its religious festival only for women
- trial of incest with sister Clodia – Cicero was a main prosecutor - Caesar prorogued – managed to do this so that he would not be prosecuted
- triumvirate had lots of clout – could force through what they wanted
Poem by Juvenal
- talking about religious ceremonies for women only
- can be “utterly female”
- vague mention of Clodius – lute player
- mid 50s – 58-53 B.C.
- street gangs of Pompey terrorized the street – battled with Clodius and his
- year 52 B.C. – Clodius is killed in one of the gang rioting
- street fighting often considered battle between optimates vs. populares – but
truly a symbol of anarchy than anything
- the Younger Cato – opinion that all three in triumvirate were not good
Romans and did not trust them – believed that Caesar was the worst of the
- in Cisalpine Gaul – meeting of triumvirate to plan for the future – met so that
Caesar wouldn’t have to leave Gaul (his command)
- decided that Pompey and Crassus would be consuls - Pompey would be
given a five year command in Spain, Crassus would have command in Syria
for five years, and Caesar would extend command to Gaul – managed to push
- Pompey never truly goes to Spain – sends legates – strategy that Augustus
would employ later on
- Pompey gradually became reconciled