Class Notes (838,030)
Canada (510,640)
Classics (1,714)
CLA231H1 (126)
Lecture

Lecture 25 Civil War and the Flavians

5 Pages
143 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Classics
Course
CLA231H1
Professor
Glenn Wilkinson
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 25 (November 18) Civil War and the Flavians (and early Antonines) 1. Civil war after death of Nero (68-69 A.D.) a. Galba b. Otho c. Vitellius 2. Flavians a. Vespasian, 69-79 A.D. (term: Lex de imperio Vespasiani) b. Titus, 79-81 A.D. c. Domitian, 81-96 A.D. (term: damnatio memoriae) 3. Early Antonines a. Nerva, 96-98 A.D. b. Trajan, 98-117 A.D. c. Hadrian, 117-138 A.D. (Antonius) Death of Nero - struggle for imperial power after Nero’s death – no obvious successor - senators – wanted Galba - Galba • about 80 years of age • from old noble Roman family • openly opposed Nero toward the end of his reign • old republican virtue • choice – steer away from tyrannical rule • however – old fashioned rule blinded him to politics of the presence • immediately lost favour with the people – cancelled games • immediately lost support of praetorian guards – refused to bribe them • snubbed Otho – husband of Poppaea Sabina – believed that he was to be the successor to Galba • marked out someone else as his successor • support of Otho – by Praetorians, who murdered Galba in the Roman forum, along with his newly adopted successor in 69 A.D. - successor Otho – but not for long - armies declared Vitellius (their general) as new emperor – marched to Italy in the spring of 69 A.D. – defeated Otho and he committed suicide - reign of Otho lasted only a few months – February to April - reign of Vitellius was not long either – another army named their general emperor – Vespasian - hereditary principle was not the best one – response in the end was wiping out the entire Julio-Claudio clan - army was key – volatile year from mid-68 A.D. to mid-69 A.D. showed that an emperor could be made outside of Rome – general with strong military support could take over Vespasian - new man – equestrian - prominent and trusted general under the Julio-Claudians - was Nero who sent Vespasian to Judea to supress the first Jewish revolt - was still in Judea when his soldiers named him emperor - more prudent than others – unlike Vitellius he built up a power base and got troops on his side first, then marched into Italy - marched into Italy and defeated army of Vitellius – at site of clash between Otho and Vitellius – Cromona - marched on Rome itself and engaged in Roman warfare – destroyed large parts of the city – event major monuments such as temple to Jupiter - paraded Vitellius naked and bound though the streets and then executed him - this was civil strife on a scale not seen since the end of the republic - others did the dirty work – Vespasian took his time getting to Rome - left command over the suppression of the Jews to his son Titus - reign – reign from 69-79 A.D. - term Lex de imperio Vespasiani – instituted a law that defined the powers of the emperor - while Augustus attempted to conceal the extent of his power – other Julio- Claudians inherited this setup - however – Vespasian clearly defined that princeps was above the law and could do whatever he deemed beneficial – office that usurped the traditions of the senate and the people of Rome - institutionalized what was already in practice - made it clear that he was creating a dynasty – the Flavians - after Titus finished in Judea – was given tribunition power – successor - got under the skin of those with deep republican values – some were exiled, some even executed, all were removed from senate - maintained a fairly good relations with the senate and people of Rome - census in 63 A.D. – restored the senate to 600 again - once again a pretence was given to senate that they had a say – similarity to Augustus in this sense - senate had fallen apart under the reign of Nero and during civil war - began construction projects – began construction of the Coliseum (on the site of the palace of Nero) - attempt to show that there was a compete break from reign of Nero – built things over Nero’s Golden House - very popular with the people – put on games - after his death, Vespasian was remembered as a good emperor - honoured with deification Titus - eldest son of Vespasian - died in 81 A.D. – relatively at a young age - appears to have kept up positive relations with senate and people of Rome - noteworthy reign due to catastrophes beyond his control - eruption of Mount Vesuvius – in 79 A.D. - another major fire in the city of Rome in 80 A.D. – first fire under Nero in 68 A.D. - initial steps to mitigate both disasters but died before he could finish - succeeded by younger brother Domitian Domitian - ruled for 16 years - not a very stable rule - very bad terms with the senate - must hostility toward his rule - took most important senatorial positions for hims
More Less

Related notes for CLA231H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit